ברשימה 5 התחלתי מלהראות איך אריסטו לא חולק על יסודות תורת אפלטון אלא רק מוסיף לה שמלבד המבט השמיימי שלפיו האידיאות קודמות לחומר מבחינת סדר ההוויה ומעלת ושלמות הקיום, יש במקביל גם מבט ארצי שבו מה שבחומר קודם במציאותו. ומה שהוא חולק בחריפות על אפלטון הוא רק בכך שיש חשיבות מכרעת לא להזניח את המבט הארצי, והתבאר בפנים עיין שם וגם בהקדמה החמישית לביאור על מורה נבוכים.
תורת ה'עצם' של אריסטו באה להעמיד את שני המבטים האלה כאחד.
בסוף הרשימה הגעתי לתורה של אפלטון שנמסרה בעל פה על העקרונות הראשוניים של הבריאה, הם ה'אחד' והשתים-הבלתי-מוגדר שנקרא גם המרובה והמועט. והבאתי את דברי אריסטו במטאפיזיקה ספרים 13 ו 14 שמוסר בראשי פרקים ובמרומז את התורה הזו.
ראיתי צורך להביא גם את החלק של תורת אפלטון לגבי האל והנבראים שהתבאר בכתב בדיאלוג טימיאוס. ואני מעתיק כאן עם הערות את רוב הדיאלוג טימיאוס.
ביאור טוב על טימיאוס מאת Cornford נמצא כאן
פרוקלוס על טימיאוס נמצא כאן
כאן יש לימוד בחברותא של טימיאוס, עם ביאור הרבה יותר מפורט ומוסבר על כל פסקה.
Written 360 B.C.E
Translated by Benjamin Jowett
הועתק מכאן: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/timaeus.html
(השתמשתי גם בתרגום של W.R.M. Lamb מועתק מכאן)
First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask, What is that which always is and has no becoming; and what is that which is always becoming and never is?
That which is apprehended by intelligence and reason is always in the same state; but that which is conceived by opinion with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of becoming and perishing and never really is.
[אריסטו אומר משפט זה בכמה נוסחאות, עיין ברשימה 5 שהבאתי את הדברים וביארתי את הכוונה בהם]
Now everything that becomes or is created must of necessity be created by some cause, for without a cause nothing can be created.
The work of the creator, whenever he looks to the unchangeable and fashions the form and nature of his work after an unchangeable pattern, must necessarily be made fair and perfect; but when he looks to the created only, and uses a created pattern, it is not fair or perfect.
[the creator כאן הוא תרגום של 'דמיורגוס', המונח היווני המפורסם לאל הבורא]
Was the heaven then or the world, whether called by this or by any other more appropriate name – assuming the name, I am asking a question which has to be asked at the beginning of an enquiry about anything – was the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created, and had it a beginning?
Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and having a body, and therefore sensible; and all sensible things are apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and created. Now that which is created must, as we affirm, of necessity be created by a cause. But the father and maker of all this universe is past finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be impossible.
And there is still a question to be asked about him: Which of the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world – the pattern of the unchangeable, or of that which is created? If the world be indeed fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to that which is eternal; but if what cannot be said without blasphemy is true, then to the created pattern.
Every one will see that he must have looked to, the eternal; for the world is the fairest of creations and he is the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind and is unchangeable, and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted, be a copy of something.
[תחילת מדרש בראשית רבה:
התורה אומרת: אני הייתי כלי אומנותו של הקב"ה. בנוהג שבעולם, מלך בשר ודם בונה פלטין, אינו בונה אותה מדעת עצמו אלא מדעת אומן, והאומן אינו בונה אותה מדעת עצמו, אלא דיפתראות, ופינקסאות יש לו, לדעת היאך הוא עושה חדרים, היאך הוא עושה פשפשין, כך היה הקב"ה מביט בתורה, ובורא את העולם, והתורה אמרה בראשית ברא אלהים, ואין ראשית אלא תורה, היאך מה דאת אמר (משלי ח, כב): "ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ".
מורה נבוכים ב' ו':
"ודברנו הנה אמנם הוא במלאכים אשר הם שכלים נפרדים, שתורתנו לא תכחיש היותו יתעלה מנהיג זה המציאות באמצעות המלאכים. כתבו החכמים במאמר התורה: "נעשה אדם בצלמנו" (בראשית א, כו), ואמרו "הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם" (בראשית יא, ז), אשר זה לשון רבים. אמרו: "כביכול אין הקב"ה עושה דבר עד שמסתכל בפמליא של מעלה". ואתמה מאמרם "מסתכל", כי בזה הלשון בעצמו יאמר אפלטון שהשם יעיין בעולם השכלים וישפיע ממנו המציאות. ובמקומות אמרו כן מוחלט, "אין הקב"ה עושה דבר עד שנמלך בפמליא של מעלה". ו"פמליא" הוא המחנה בלשון יון. ובבראשית רבה גם כן נאמר ובמדרש קהלת: "את אשר כבר עשוהו" (קהלת ב, יב), "עשהו" לא נאמר אלא "עשוהו", כביכול הוא ובית דינו נמנו על כל אבר ואבר שבך והושיבו אותו על כנו, שנאמר (דברים לב, ו): "הוא עשך ויכוננך". ובבראשית רבה גם כן אמרו, כל מקום שנאמר "וה'", ובית דינו."
משנה תורה לרמב"ם הלכות יסודי התורה ד ו:
ושינוי זה יהיה בסביבת הגלגל ומסביבתו יתחברו ארבעתן ויהיה מהן שאר גולמי בני אדם ונפש חיה צמח ואבן ומתכת והאל נותן לכל גולם וגולם צורה ראויה לו על ידי מלאך העשירי שהיא הצורה הנקראת אישים]
על הדמיורגוס, האל הבורא, לפי אפלטון, וההבדלים בתפישה בינו לבין האל המקראי היהודי-נוצרי, עיין דברים מחכימים בספרו של קורנפלד כאן.
אצל אפלטון האל הבורא אינו מושא לעבודה והערצה והוא נראה יותר כדמות אלגורית מאשר כדמות חיה. הוא גם מוגבל על ידי ההכרחיות, הוא מנסה ליצור את העולם הטוב ביותר במסגרת הגבלת האילוץ של ההכרחיות.
במסורת של תלמידי אפלטון האל הבורא שמדובר עליו כאן, הדמיורגוס, פורש לא כאל עצמו אלא כשכל הפועל שדיבר עליו אריסטו, שהוא התחתון מעשרת השכלים הנבדלים והוא מעביר את השפע שיש בשכלים הנבדלים שמעליו אל מציאות חומרית. ביהדות זה מה שמכונה ספירת מלכות או שכינה. ולקמן לגבי התנועה שהיתה לפני הבריאה על ידי הדמיורגוס כתבתי עוד בזה.
מכיוון שאלי האולימפוס הם מתחת למדרגת הדמיורגוס, והדמיורגוס עצמו הוא מתחת למי שברא את העולם המקורי שממנו מעתיק הדמיורגוס, יש מזה קצת רמז שהיה לאפלטון אל דומה לאל התנ"ך, שהוא זה שברא את המקור שממנו מעתיק הדמיורגוס כמו שהדמיורגוס בורא את העולם החומרי. שהרי אם העולם החומרי בהכרח שיש לו סיבה ובורא למה שלא נאמר גם שהעולם המקורי שאפלטון מדבר עליו כאן שהיה קיים לפני הדמיורגוס והדמיורגוס מקבל אותו כנתון מעתיק ממנו, גם לו בהכרח יש סיבה ובורא. מה שאפלטון השאיר את זה כרמז ותורת סוד שבעל פה יכול להיות מסיבות רבות.
Now it is all-important that the beginning of everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and the original we may assume that words are akin to the matter which they describe; when they relate to the lasting and permanent and intelligible, they ought to be lasting and unalterable, and, as far as their nature allows, irrefutable and immovable – nothing less. But when they express only the copy or likeness and not the eternal things themselves, they need only be likely and analogous to the real words. As being is to becoming, so is truth to belief.
If then, Socrates, amid the many opinions about the gods and the generation of the universe, we are not able to give notions which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one another, do not be surprised. Enough, if we adduce probabilities as likely as any others; for we must remember that I who am the speaker, and you who are the judges, are only mortal men, and we ought to accept the tale which is probable and enquire no further.
Soc.: Excellent, Timaeus; and we will do precisely as you bid us. The prelude is charming, and is already accepted by us – may we beg of you to proceed to the strain?
Tim.: Let me tell you then why the creator made this world of generation. He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should be as like himself as they could be.
["דבר אל כל עדת בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם קדושים תהיו כי קדוש אני ה' אלוקיכם" (ויקרא יט ב).
מדרש רבה (כד ט): ""קדושים תהיו" – יכול כמוני? תלמוד לומר: "כי קדוש אני". קדושתי למעלה מקדושתכם".
שבת קלג ב: "אבא שאול אומר ואנוהו הוי דומה לו מה הוא חנון ורחום אף אתה היה חנון ורחום"
סוטה יד א: "אחרי ה' אלהיכם תלכו וכי אפשר לו לאדם להלך אחר שכינה והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ד, כד) כי ה' אלהיך אש אוכלה הוא?
אלא להלך אחר מדותיו של הקב"ה מה הוא מלביש ערומים דכתיב (בראשית ג, כא) ויעש ה' אלהים לאדם ולאשתו כתנות עור וילבישם אף אתה הלבש ערומים.
הקב"ה ביקר חולים דכתיב (בראשית יח, א) וירא אליו ה' באלוני ממרא אף אתה בקר חולים.
הקב"ה ניחם אבלים דכתיב (בראשית כה, יא) ויהי אחרי מות אברהם ויברך אלהים את יצחק בנו אף אתה נחם אבלים.
הקב"ה קבר מתים דכתיב (דברים לד, ו) ויקבר אותו בגיא אף אתה קבור מתים]
This is in the truest sense the origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on the testimony of wise men: God desired that all things should be good and nothing bad, so far as this was attainable.
Wherefore also finding the whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly fashion, out of disorder he brought order, considering that this was in every way better than the other.
[התנועה שהיתה לפני הבריאה. נראה שלאפלטון העולם והזמן נבראים
כאן נאמר שלפני הבריאה כבר היתה תנועה. עיין בפיזיקה של אריסטו ספר ח' פרק א'. תנועה זו עוד לא היתה זמן, שהרי את הזמן ברא אחר כך כמו שמבאר אחר כך.
שם מדבר על התנועה הסיבובית הקבועה ובמהירות אחידה של גרמי השמיים, שלפיה אפשר למדוד זמן. כאן מדובר על תנועות כאוטיות שאינן יכולות לשמש כמחוג למדידת זמן. אבל עדיין היה אופן מסויים של זמן כי תנועה וזמן הם אחד. ועיין אריכות בזה בפיזיקה של אריסטו ספר ח' ובביאור על מורה נבוכים על הקדמה כ"ו לחלק שני של המורה נבוכים (בשני החלקים של הביאור על ההקדמה.). וכן נראה מלשון אריסטו בפיזיקה סוף ספר ד' מעמ' 223ב' שורה 14, שמדבר על מדידת הזמן ואומר שהיא שייכת רק בתנועה סיבובית אחידה ובתנועת הכוכבים, עיין שם.
תנועות כאוטיות אינן יכולות להיות נצחיות. שהרי כל אחת מתחילה באופן ספונטני מקרי. והיא גם מסתיימת באופן ספונטני מקרי. המהירות שלהן אינה אחידה. כמו שנפש בעל חיים היא מניע ראשון שמניע את גופו, ואי אפשר להשאיר שזו הסיבה הראשונה לתנועות בעלי החיים, כי היא תנועה מקרית, הוא יכול גם שלא לנוע. ומכיוון שהתנועה אין לה התהוות והפסד והיא נצחית איך יתחבר בעל החיים לנצחיות התנועה, אלא בהכרח מקור התנועה שהנפש מניעה הוא המגלגל כמו שכתב הרמב"ם בחלק שני מהמורה פרק א'.
אריסטו כדי לומר שהתנועה נצחית ואין בה הווייה והפסד הוכרח לקשור את כל התנועות לתנועת הגלגל שכולן נובעות ממנה. והיא סיבובית ויש לה מניע נצחי והגלגל עשוי מחומר חמישי שאין בו שחיקה והתפוררות. רק כשיש מקור אחד נצחי התנועה יכולה להיות נצחית. אם התנועה כאוטית וספונטנית ומקרית, יש אפשרות שיהיה רגע בו כל מה שנע נעצר. ובנצחי כל אפשרות מתממשת. ואז מה יניע את התנועה מחדש?
לכן נראה שאותה תנועה כאוטית שאפלטון מזכיר כאן לא היתה קיימת מאז ומעולם. זה התהו ובהו שכתוב בתנ"ך. זה אופן של בכח שממנו יצא העולם אל הפועל. כמו שכתב בפירוש הרמב"ן על בראשית א' א' שהתחלת הבריאה היתה בכח וכן במהר"ל והארכתי בזה במק"א. ומוכרח מזה שלפני הדמיורגוס, האל העליון ברא את העולם. כי לאותה תנועה מקרית כאוטית צריכה להיות התחלה כיוון שאי אפשר שתהיה נצחית. עדיין ייתכן מה שכתב במורה נבוכים שלפי אפלטון החומר הראשון היה מאז ומעולם. אמנם דברי המורה הם לפי הפירוש באפלטון שהדמיורגוס הוא האל עצמו ואין אל אחר. אם נאמר שהדמיורגוס הוא השכל הפועל, ספירת השכינה, ויש אל מעליו, אז גם לא נצטרך לומר שהחומר היה מאז ומעולם, כי הדמיורגוס אמנם מצא כבר מוכן את החומר הראשון, אבל אפשר שהאל ברא אותו מקודם. אפלטון לא מדבר על האל עצמו אבל ידוע שהצניע עניינים כאלה ושהיתה לו תורה שבעל פה סודית לגבי זה ומה שכתב הוא רק רמזים עמוקים כמו שכתב באגרות הרמב"ם, ולכן ממה שלא הזכיר שיש אל מעל הדמיורגוס לא מוכיח שלא סבר כך.
אם היה חומר ראשון מאז ומעולם, והדמיורגוס גם היה מאז ומעולם, קשה מה קרה פתאום בנקודה אחת שבה החליט הדמיורגוס פתאום לברוא את העולם. מה היה המתניע והסיבה לזה.
משמע שאפילו שהיתה תנועה לפני הבריאה, לא היה זמן, שהרי לקמן מדבר על בריאת הזמן על ידי הדמיורגוס. ואע"פ שאי אפשר תנועה בלי זמן, שתנועה עניינה שהיה מקודם כאן ואחר כך כאן,, ו"מקודם" ו"אחר כך" הם מושגי זמן. וכמו שכתב אריסטו שלכן אי אפשר תנועה בלי זמן, אותה תנועה כאוטית לא נחשבת זמן כיוון שאין משהו שנע במהירות קבועה שאפשר למדוד לפיו. אפשר גם שזה נחשב שאין לה מהירות בכלל כיוון שהכל כאוטי ואין השוואה של שום דבר לשום דבר. אם הזמן לא היה הרי אי אפשר לדבר שמשהו, גם לא החומר, היה קיים מאז ומעולם, אחורה בזמן עד אינסוף. הרבה יותר נוח לומר שלאפלטון האל ברא את העולם יש מאין כנקודה של בכח ואחר כך ספירת מלכות, הדמיורגוס, הוציאה את זה לפועל. והזמן נברא בכח באותה נקודה, ובריאת הזמן שבאה אחרי בריאת כדור הארץ וחלק ממנה היה בריאת גרמי השמיים הוא הוצאה לפועל של אותה בריאת זמן בכח שהיה בנקודת הבכח שהיתה כל הבריאה בתחלתה הכל כדברי הרמב"ן בראשית א' א'. ודו"ק. ושמא הרמב"ם לא חולק על האפשרות להבין כך רק שאין לזה הוכחה גמורה ואין לו מכח מה לחלוק על כל הקדמונים שפירשו באפלטון שהחומר היה מאז ומעולם, ואין לו צורך בזה. כי מה ממנו יהלוך אם יאמר באפלטון שהחומר היה מתמיד או שנברא כמו דעת התורה. אין בזה שום נפקא מינא. מה שחשוב מה הן האפשרויות לומר, ומה האמת. ואין חשיבות איזה אדם אמר מה, שאיננו חיים מפיו של שום אדם אלא רק לפי האמת שלפי השכל
אבן רושד על השמע הטבעי מאמר שלישי כתב שמה שאפלטון אמר שהעולם נצחי זהו רק מנקודת ההתהוות והלאה:
ובמאמר שמיני שם כתב:
המדברים היו מוסלמים קנאים והאמינו בחידוש העולם יש מאין גם בחומר, והרי אבן רושד כרך את אפלטון עמהם, ולא כדברי הרמב"ם שלאפלטון החומר הראשון קדמון ורק הצורות נבראו]
[רש"י על בראשית א' א' כתב: "על כרחך לא לימד המקרא בסדר המוקדמים והמאוחרים כלום."
והפסוקים אומרים: "וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם. ג וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי אוֹר. ד וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאוֹר כִּי טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ."]
Now the deeds of the best could never be or have been other than the fairest; and the creator, reflecting on the things which are by nature visible, found that no unintelligent creature taken as a whole was fairer than the intelligent taken as a whole; and that intelligence could not be present in anything which was devoid of soul. For which reason, when he was framing the universe, he put intelligence in soul, and soul in body, that he might be the creator of a work which was by nature fairest and best. Wherefore, using the language of probability, we may say that the world became a living creature truly endowed with soul and intelligence by the providence of God. [עי' מורה נבוכים חלק א' פרק ע"ב]
העולם כבעל חיים אחד:
This being supposed, let us proceed to the next stage: In the likeness of what animal did the Creator make the world? It would be an unworthy thing to liken it to any nature which exists as a part only; for nothing can be beautiful which is like any imperfect thing; but let us suppose the world to be the very image of that whole of which all other animals both individually and in their tribes are portions. For the original of the universe contains in itself all intelligible beings, just as this world comprehends us and all other visible creatures.
[אפלטון לא אומר כאן מניין מקור הרעיון שהעולם צריך להיות דומה לחיות כלשהן.
בהלכות יסודי התורה פרק ב' כתב הרמב"ם על החיות: "שינוי שמות המלאכים על שם מעלתם הוא ולפיכך נקראים חיות הקדש והם למעלה מן הכל ואופנים ואראלים וחשמלים ושרפים ומלאכים ואלהים ובני אלהים וכרובים ואישים כל אלו עשרה השמות שנקראו בהן המלאכים על שם עשר מעלות שלהן הן ומעלה שאין למעלה ממנה אלא מעלת האל ברוך הוא היא מעלת הצורה שנקראת חיות לפיכך נאמר בנבואה שהן תחת כסא הכבוד ומעלה עשירית היא מעלת הצורה שנקראת אישים והם המלאכים המדברים עם הנביאים ונראים להם במראה הנבואה לפיכך נקראו אישים שמעלתם קרובה למעלת דעת בני אדם."
וזה נלמד מכך שבפרשת בראשית הזכירה התורה את החיות למיניהן]
For the deity, intending to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible beings, framed one visible animal comprehending within itself all other animals of a kindred nature.
Are we right in saying that there is one world, or that they are many and infinite? There must be one only, if the created copy is to accord with the original. For that which includes all other intelligible creatures cannot have a second or companion; in that case there would be need of another living being which would include both, and of which they would be parts, and the likeness would be more truly said to resemble not them, but that other which included them. In order then that the world might be solitary, like the perfect animal, the creator made not two worlds or an infinite number of them; but there is and ever will be one only – begotten and created heaven.
תרגום י. ג. ליבס, הוצאת שוקן:
עמ' 28 (במהד' הסטנדרטית שלפיה ממסופרים העמודים בכל המהדורות)
מאמר: ההכרח של אפלטון שהעולם נברא – העולם כזיווג
אפלטון פותח בהבחנה היסודית של עולם האידיאות: יש הקיים תמיד ואין בו התהוות, והוא נתפס בכח השכל ויש המתהווה תמיד ולעולם אינו קיים, והוא הנתפס בחושים ובכח הכרה הנקרא סברא אמיתית (במק"א הארכתי היכן בקומת האדם הוא הכח הנקרא סברא נכונה. בקצרה הוא אופן של שכל המשוקע בכח הדמיון. היחס בין שכל לדמיון הוא יחס של צורה לחומר, כמו שכותב אלפראבי באנשי העיר המעולה. כמו שיש צורה טהורה נבדלת בעולם האידיאות, ושי צוקה המשוקעת בחומר כמו הצורות של העצמים הטבעיים, כך באדם יש שכל נבדל – או לפחות פוטנציאל לזה – ויש שכל המשוקע בחומר, דהיינו בכח הדמיון, ומה שהוא משיג מחובר ומאוחד עם השגת החושים).
הקיים תמיד ונתפש בשכל נבדל מחומר, הוא עולם האידיאות הטהורות הנבדלות מחומר. המתהווה ולא קיים ונתפש בסברא הוא העולם החומרי שבו האידיאות משוקעות בחומר.
אם העצם החומרי נוצר בדוגמת עצם חומרי אחר הוא לא יעלה יפה. כי העצם החומרי מחזיק רק זווית מסויימת חלקית ועכורה משלמות מה שיש באידיאה. למשל אם אדם יתבונן בעץ ברוש כמו צייר או משורר מתוך התרוממות, ויקלוט את יפעת יופיו ושלמותו בסדר וחיים וצורה שלמה ויפה המאירה ממנו, ואחר כך יתבונן כך בעוד עצי ברוש, ויתבונן בצורה המשותפת להם, הצורה השלמה, המשותפת לכל הברושים, שאין בה שום חסרון מחסרונות הברושים הפרטיים, ישיג בה יופי ושלמות והתרוממות הרבה יותר ממה שיש בברוש אחד פרטי. ברוש פרטי שואב את יופיו, את חיותו והסדר שבו והאור שמתגלה בו, מהאידיאה השלמה של ברוש מושלם שכולל את כל היפעה שיש בכל ברוש וברוש בעולם. אבל להעתיק מברוש מסויים חומרי שחסר בו הרבה מאוד ממה שיש באידיאה, הרי בהעתקה יחסר עוד ולא יעלה יפה.
אפלטון כותב שכל מה שמוחש ראינו בו שהוא מתהווה ונעשה.
צריך הרבה מאוד עיון להבין דבר זה. איך ראינו שהוא נעשה? אולי מאז ומעולם קיימת שרשרת אינסופית של דברים חומרים שמתהווים ונפסדים, ואין לה התחלה. הם מתהווים זה מזה, כמו שגשם מתהווה מעננים וולד מתהווה מהוריו. איפה רואים בדבר מוחשי שאינו כך אלא שנתהווה?
מועתק מהביאור על מורה נבוכים חלק ב' פרק א':
אם שואלים מה הניע את א', נאמר הניע אותו ב'. אם נשאל מה הניע את ב' נשיב ג', וכן הלאה, לכל שאלה מה הניע את X יש תשובה, הניע אותו אותו עצם סופי נע שנגע בו, והוא הונע בתורות על ידי עצם סופי נע אחר וכן עד אינסוף. כלומר גם אם מניחים שכל תנועה צריכה מניע, וגם אם נאמר שהמניע הוא זה שמעניק מציאות ובורא, עדיין די לנו שיש תשובה במניע הסמוך לו שהניע אותו. אם מסתכלים על כולם ביחד אז באמת אם זה נסוג אחורה עד אינסוף כיוון שאין כלל מניע ראשון אז אין מניע שממנו התחילה התנועה או המציאות לכולם. אמנם לא מובן למה זה קושיא, המציאות כולה במבט כללי, אכן לא נבראה ולא הונעה ולא התחילה, היא תמיד היתה.
כל פרט במציאות בפני עצמו לא תמיד היה, לכן כיוון שלא תמיד היה יש עליו קושיא מהיכן הוא נוצר, מה הניע אותו, מה העניק לו מציאות. התשובה לזה היא ההורים שלו. ועליהם התשובה היא ההורים שלהם. כל על כל עצם פרטי בפני עצמו שלא היה תמיד קיים מתורץ איך הוא קיים. ועל המציאות כולה נוכל לתרץ שאמנם היא חומרית ולכן מוכרח שמישהו יברא אותה ויתחיל אותה ויניע אותה. אבל אם אומרים שהיא היתה מאז ומעולם אז זה כבר מתרץ את השאלה מי ברא והתחיל אותה. היא לא צריכה התחלה ובריאה כיוון שתמיד היתה.
עיין לקמן רשימה 35 בהערות על החוקים של אפלטון, במאמר התנועה יסוד ההוויה. שם התבאר מה שכתב בטימיאוס לקמן.
הצורות מתגלמות בחומר הראשון בדרך של תנועה. המשל הכי קרוב שמצאתי לזה הוא כמו תנועת גלי הים. הגלים הם משל לצורה ומי הים משל לחומר. יש צורות של גלים ושל מערבולת בים וכיו"ב. אמנם אין זה אלא תנועה של מי הים ותו לא. התנועה היא היא הצורה כשהיא בחומר. הצורה הנבדלת הנצחית מציירת את עצמה בחומר על ידי שהיא מניעה אותו. התנועה היא לפי הצורה. התנועה מכניסה סדר בחומר הכאוטי, שהוא תהו ובהו בלי שום סדר. למשל כלב הוא כמות של עפר ומים ורוח ואש מעורבים. הנפש שלו, החיים שבו, אינם אלא תנועה של אותם חומרים לפי סדר מסויים, לפי הרמוניה מסויימת.
אם יש אידיאה של קו ישר, ההתגלמות שלה בחומר היא למשל תנועה של חפץ נופל במישרין למטה. כשחפץ נופל אין כאן מציאות של קו ישר, רק תנועה בצורת קו ישר. כך היא התגלמות כל האידיאות.
אחרי שצורת היסודות, אש רוח מים עפר, התגלמה בחומר הראשון, היא נדמית כאילו היא קבועה בו בקביעות, והחומרים שמורכבים מהיסודות נראה שמקבלים את הצורה בהטבעה קבועה של הצורה בחומר. אמנם הרי כל דבר נאכל בשיני הזמן, כל דבר בסופו של דבר יישחק וייפסד ויפרד למרכיביו שמהם יורכב דבר חדש. רק שאבן למשל יכולה להתפרק במשך רבבות שנים. התנועה הזו כל כך איטית שהיא נדמית כקבועה. מה שחי יש בו סגולה שקשה לצייר במחשבה את מותו. נדמה שחייו קבועים.
זו כוונת אריסטו בפיזיקה שאומר בתחילת ספר ג' שהטבע הוא יסוד של שינוי ותנועה. הטבע פירושו מה שאינו כאוס מוחלט. הדבר הכי קרוב לכאוס שכבר אינו כאוס הוא הטבע. יש תפישה בסיסית של התודעה שאנחנו לא חיים בכאוס גמור. אנחנו יודעים לצאת מחדר דרך הדלת ולאכול מה שבצלחת עם הפה וכל כיו"ב. רשמי החושים אינם רק בליל רשמים זורם חסר כל ארגון ופשר. הוא מאורגן לעצמים מוגדרים שמלכדים את הכתמים הזורמים של החושים לעצמים שיש להם המשך ועקביות בחלל ובזמן.
הסדר הראשוני הוא התנועה. אם היינו אומרים שכדי שתהיה תנועה צריך שיהיו מקודם עצמים, שהעצמים הם אלה שנעים ובלעדיהם לא תיתכן תנועה, הרי העצמים הם הם הסדר הראשון שבכאוס, ולמה לא נאמר שהם היסוד הראשוני בטבע. הרי אם אני רואה כלב רץ אני רואה כתמי צבע משתנים, ואני לא רואה כלב אחד שנשאר אחד דרך השינויים. הארגון של הכתמים הצבעוניים שקולטת העין ל"כלב" זה כבר ארגון והכנסת סדר לכאוס. ולכאורה זה הסדר הראשון.
לשון אריסטו בפיזיקה ספר ח' פרק א':
"But that which is produced or directed by nature can never be anything disorderly: for nature is everywhere the cause of order."
אמנם באמת העצם הוא רק תנועה של חומר ולא התגלמות קבועה של צורה בחומר. רק זו לא תנועה כאוטית חסרת ארגון, אלא תנועה מסודרת עם ארגון ומנגינה והרמוניה. והתנועה הזו היא היסוד הראשון של הסדר וממילא של ההכרה וזה הטבע, בניגוד לתהו ובהו.
זו כוונת אפלטון כשהוא קורא לעולם החומרי מתהווה ולא קיים. הוא בתנועה מתמדת והיא יסוד קיומו. וזו תנועה של הוויה והפסד. כמו גל בים שנע כדי להיות קיים, ותנועתו היא שהמקום הגבוה שבגל הופך לנמוך והנמוך לגבוה. זהו ההוויה וההפסד ששולטים בעולם. יש בגל מקום גבוה ומקום נמוך, המקום הגבוה מוכרח שיהיה מלפניו מקום נמוך אליו הוא נע. זו כוונת אפלטון בתורה שבע"פ שלו שהיסוד השני (יסוד קיום העולם החומרי, לעומת האחד שהוא יסוד קיום עולם הצורות הנבדלות הנצחי הקבוע) הוא הגדול והקטן, או המועט והמרובה.
מה שהדבר מוחשי, מכריח שהוא חיבור של צורה וחומר. זה מכריח שאין לו הוויה עומדת אלא רק התהוות נעה.
עד כאן הדברים ברורים בלשונו של אפלטון כאן שכך כוונתו.
אמנם מה שהוא כותב שזה מכריח שהוא נעשה ולא היה מאז ומעולם בזה לשונו לא אומר דבר מבורר היטב.
לכאורה היה אפשר לומר שמאז ומעולם החומר הראשון ועולם האידיאות קיימים, ומאז ומעולם עולם האידיאות משיב רוח של תנועה בחומר הראשון ומצייר בו צורות שמתהוות ונפסדות.
אמנם נראה מהמשך לשונו של אפלטון הביאור בזה.
הוא אומר שהבורא ברא כיוון שהוא טוב. ורצה שהכל יהיה דומה לו ככל האפשר.
רואים כאן עניין של זיווג. יש יסוד נצחי קבוע שהוא החומר הראשון, הוא יסוד הנקבה, המגדל, המכיל.
ועיין עוד שם לגבי החומר הראשון.
ויש יסוד נצחי שהוא עולם האידיאות הקבוע הנבדל מחומר.
זוהי ההוויה הקיימת, הקבועה והנצחית. החומר ועולם הצורות.
התנועה שנובעת מעולם האידיאות כלפי החומר הראשון, שהיא מציירת את הצורות של העולם החומרי, היא לא יסוד קבוע, היא רק חיבור בין יסוד החומר ליסוד האידיאות ולא התחלת מציאות בפני עצמה. והיא צריכה סיבה להתחדש. התנועה הזו אם מתבוננים בה לעומק רואים שהיא בצורת זיווג. כלומר היא יחס בין שתי התחלות המציאות, האב והאם, ולא התחלת מציאות נפרדת לעצמה. אין בה מאומה מלבד חומר וצורה, והרי חומר יש לו קיום בפני עצמו כחומר הראשון וצורה יש לה קיום בפני עצמו בעולם האידיאות, ובעצמים של העולם החומרי אין מאומה מלבד חומר וצורה, והרי שאין כאן התחלת מציאות שלישית, אלא רק יחס בין שתי ההתחלות שכבר קיימות, שיש תנועת חיבור ביניהן, ותנועה שהיא חיבור היא עניין הזיווג. והרי הוא אומר בפירוש שה'אחד' שהוא יסוד האידיאות הוא האב, והחומר הראשון זהו האם, והצורות המצויירות בחומר זהו הוולד. והרי אב ואם שיוצרים וולד זהו זיווג. לכן אומר אפלטון שהבורא ברא כיוון שהוא טוב, כלומר משפיע. שזה היסוד ממנו נובע הזיווג. יש כאן יסוד של רצון. יחס של חיבור בין שתי התחלות המציאות נובע בהכרח מרצון של חיבור.
הרי המורה נבוכים מבאר שכל הנושא סביב השאלה האם העולם קדמון או מחודש הוא האם מצד הבורא יש גם התגלות של רצון או רק של שכל.
רצון במהותו הוא מחודש, הוא לא יסוד קבוע ומוכרח.
זה עומק מה שביארתי לעיל ברשימה 3, לגבי העניין של אפשרי המציאות ומוכרח המציאות, שהוא ההוכחה הדיאלקטית העיקרית למציאות האל, במורה חלק ב' פרק א'. היסוד האו שכשמתבוננים היטב במציאות החומרית רואים שמצד עצמה אין לה מציאות. יעו"ש שם בזה.
וזהו שכתב הרמב"ם בתחילת משנה תורה:
"יסוד היסודות ועמוד החכמות לידע שיש שם מצוי ראשון והוא ממציא כל נמצא וכל הנמצאים משמים וארץ ומה שביניהם לא נמצאו אלא מאמתת המצאו.
ואם יעלה על הדעת שהוא אינו מצוי אין דבר אחר יכול להמצאות.
ואם יעלה על הדעת שאין כל הנמצאים מלבדו מצויים הוא לבדו יהיה מצוי ולא יבטל הוא לבטולם שכל הנמצאים צריכין לו והוא ברוך הוא אינו צריך להם ולא לאחד מהם לפיכך אין אמתתו כאמתת אחד מהם."
הבורא ממציא כל רגע ורגע את הנמצאים, ואם יחדל לרגע אחד מייד מציאותם תתבטל.
זה מוסכם גם על אריסטו בהכרח וכמו שהראיתי במק"א באורך.
השאלה היא רק האם מאז ומעולם הבורא בורא את הנבראים כל רגע ורגע מחדש, או שיש לזה התחלה. ושאלה זו תלויה בכך האם מה שהבורא בורא כל רגע ורגע את הנבראים הוא מצד חכמתו ושכלו או מצד רצונו. אם זה מצד חכמתו, אז כמו שחכמתו הגיעה למסקנה הרגע שכך האמת, אין סיבה שלא הגיעה גם ברגע הקודם לו לאותה מסקנה. שהרי מה שאמת הוא אמת. וכמו שאם הרגע הגעתי למסקנה שאחת ועוד אחת הן שתיים וודאי גם ברגע הקודם זו היתה מסקנתי.
אבל אם זה נעשה ברצון חופשי, מהותו של רצון חופשי שהוא לא מחוייב לשום דבר וממילא הוא לא מחוייב למה שרצה מקודם וכל רגע יש החלטה מחדש של הרצון האם רצונו להמציא את הנמצאים או לא. ואז אין מקום לומר שמאז ומעולם היה כן, כיוון שכל רגע הוא החלטה חופשית, אין שום סיבה להניח שמעולם היה כן. יש שאלה לפי זה האם יש לומר שמכאן ולהבא העולם נצחי. אפשר שאחרי שהיה רצון הרצון הוא לתמיד. כיוון שהרצון הוא מצד שהוא טוב, והטוב מחייב שהזיווג יהיה קבוע, אהבת עולם אהבתיך. מי שאוהב בתכלית הטוב אוהב לעולם.
"טוב" שייך לרצון ולא לשכל בלבד. ממה שאפלטון מייחס את הבריאה לטוב משמע שהבריאה נובעת מרצון ולא רק משכל. וזה כשיטת הרמב"ם ולא כאריסטו. אמנם לענ"ד מה שהרמב"ם מביא את השיטה שהעולם קדמון בשם אריסטו זהו רק בשטחיות, ובעומק אריסטו סבור כמו הרמב"ם. עיין מה שכתבתי על המורה נבוכים חלק ב' הקדמה כ"ו ובעוד ומקומות שם. כי המקור באריסטו שהעולם נצחי הוא מהפיזיקה ספר ח' ועיין שם כל הקדמות המורה הקדמה כ"ו שביארתי דברי אריסטו שם, שמה שהוא אומר שהזמן והתנועה נצחיים הכוונה בתוך העולם שתחת הזמן, ולא בא לשלול שהעולם שתחת הזמן כולל מושגי האינסוף שלו נאצל מהעולם הנצחי, ואדרבא יש מקומות שמוכיחים שאריסטו סובר כך ואכמ"ל.
גם בתורה שלשיטתה העולם נברא יש מאין בלי שהיה לפני הבריאה חומר קדמון ולא צורות, כשמסופר על בריאת השמים והארץ נאמר והארץ היתה תהו ובהו ורוח אלוהים מרחפת על פני המים. ורש"י שם שואל המים מתי נבראו, אלא שיש בריאה שהיתה לפני בריאת השמיים והארץ ובה נבראו גם המים. וכן במדרש רבה אומרים שכמו שבנאי מסתכל בתכנית האדריכל ולפיה בונה את הבית, כך הבורא הביט בבריאה ולפי זה ברא. ואמרו חז"ל שהתורה קדמה לבריאת העולם אלפיים שנה.
יש שני שלבים לבריאה. השלב הראשון בו נברא התהו ובהו, ובו נבראו המים הראשונים (התהו ובהו והמים הראשונים שייכים ליסוד החומר הראשון של אפלטון.) ובו נבראה התורה (התורה העליונה היא סדר העולם כמ"ש המהר"ל והיא עולם האידיאות של אפלטון). על השלב הזה לא מסופר בתורה אלא יש רק רמזים אליו בהזכרת התהו ובהו והמים, וכן בטימאוס אפלטון לא מדבר עליו. השלב השני הוא לצייר בחומר את הצורות, זהו מה שהסתכל בתורה ולפי זה ברא את העולם. זה מה שמדובר עליו בסיפור הבריאה של התורה. וזה מה שמדבר עליו בטימיאוס שהדמיורגוס מצייר בחומר הראשון את הצורות העליונות.
על שני שלבים אלה מדבר בפרקי רבי אליעזר שהביא המורה נבוכים חלק ב' פרק כ"ו:
"אמר [בפרקי דרבי אליעזר] "שמים מאי זה מקום נבראו? מאור לבושו לקח ונטה כשמלה והיו נמתחין והולכין שנאמר "עוטה אור כשלמה נוטה שמים כיריעה"; הארץ מאי זה מקום נבראת? משלג שתחת כסא כבודו לקח וזרק שנאמר "כי לשלג יאמר הֱוֵא ארץ"
שהוא באר שחומר השמים – בלתי חומר הארץ ושהם שני חמרים נבדלים מאוד האחד מיוחס לו ית' למעלתו וגדולתו והוא – 'מאור לבושו'; והחומר האחר רחוק מאורו ית' וזהרו והוא – החומר התחתון ושמהו 'משלג שתחת כסא הכבוד'. וזהו אשר שמני שאפרש מאמר התורה "ותחת רגליו כמעשה לבנת הספיר" – שהם השיגו ב'מראה הנבואה' ההוא אמיתת החומר הראשון התחתון; כי אונקלוס שם 'רגליו' שב אל ה'כסא' כמו שבארתי לך – וזה באר שהלבן ההוא שתחת ה'כסא' הוא חומר הארץ:
וכבר שנה ר' אליעזר זה הענין בעצמו וגילה בו – רצוני לומר היותם שני חמרים עליוני ותחתוני – ושאין חומר הכל אחד. וזהו סוד גדול לא תקל בבאור גדולי חכמי ישראל בו שהוא סוד מסודות המציאות ו'סתר' מ'סתרי תורה'. ב'בראשית רבה' אמרו "ר' אליעזר אומר כל מה שיש בשמים – בריאתו מן השמים וכל מה שיש בארץ – בריאתו מן הארץ". והתבונן איך באר לך זה החכם כי חומר כל מה שבארץ – חומר אחד משותף – רצוני לומר כל מה שתחת גלגל הירח – וחומר כל השמים ומה שבהם – חומר אחר אינו זה. ובאר ב'פרקיו' זה החידוש המוסף – רצוני לומר מעלת החומר ההוא וקרבתו לו וחסרון זה וגבול מקומו גם כן. ודע זה:"
מדובר כאן שלפני סיפור הבריאה שמתחיל בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ היה חומר ראשון (שנברא מקודם) ובא לומר שמה שנאמר ברא את השמים הכוונה שצייר אותם בתנועה על חומר שהיה מוכן מקודם, וברא את הארץ הכוונה שצייר אותה בתנועה על חומר שהיה מוכן מקודם. , ויש שני סוגי חומר ראשון, האחד שמיימי והשני ארצי. והציור הוא על ידי תנועה נרמז בכך שהשמיים "נמתחו" ועל הארץ "זרק".]
Now that which is created is of necessity corporeal, and also visible and tangible. And nothing is visible where there is no fire, or tangible which has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth. Wherefore also God in the beginning of creation made the body of the universe to consist of fire and earth. But two things cannot be rightly put together without a third; there must be some bond of union between them.
"וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם הוּא יֻלַּד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה."
תלמוד בבלי, שבת פח א: "בריך רחמנא דיהב אוריאן תליתאי [תורה משולשת] לעם תליתאי [לעם משולש] על ידי תליתאי [שלישי] ביום תליתאי בירחא תליתאי"
אוריאן תליתאי – תורה נביאים וכתובים:
לעם תליתאי – כהנים לוים וישראלים:
על יד תליתאי – משה תליתאי לבטן מרים אהרן ומשה:
ביום תליתאי – לפרישה:]
And the fairest bond is that which makes the most complete fusion of itself and the things which it combines; and proportion is best adapted to effect such a union. For whenever in any three numbers, whether cube or square, there is a mean, which is to the last term what the first term is to it; and again, when the mean is to the first term as the last term is to the mean – then the mean becoming first and last, and the first and last both becoming means, they will all of them of necessity come to be the same, and having become the same with one another will be all one.
[זה שייך למה שנאמר בספרי קבלה על ההשתנות של ספירת כתר לספירת דעת, ואכמ"ל]
If the universal frame had been created a surface only and having no depth, a single mean would have sufficed to bind together itself and the other terms; but now, as the world must be solid, and solid bodies are always compacted not by one mean but by two, God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth, and made them to have the same proportion so far as was possible (as fire is to air so is air to water, and as air is to water so is water to earth); and thus he bound and put together a visible and tangible heaven. And for these reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the world was created, and it was harmonised by proportion, and therefore has the spirit of friendship; and having been reconciled to itself, it was indissoluble by the hand of any other than the framer.
Now the creation took up the whole of each of the four elements; for the Creator compounded the world out of all the fire and all the water and all the air and all the earth, leaving no part of any of them nor any power of them outside. His intention was, in the first place, that the animal should be as far as possible a perfect whole and of perfect parts: secondly, that it should be one, leaving no remnants out of which another such world might be created: and also that it should be free from old age and unaffected by disease. Considering that if heat and cold and other powerful forces which unite bodies surround and attack them from without when they are unprepared, they decompose them, and by bringing diseases and old age upon them, make them waste away – for this cause and on these grounds he made the world one whole, having every part entire, and being therefore perfect and not liable to old age and disease.
And he gave to the world the figure which was suitable and also natural.
Now to the animal which was to comprehend all animals, that figure was suitable which comprehends within itself all other figures. Wherefore he made the world in the form of a globe, round as from a lathe, having its extremes in every direction equidistant from the centre, the most perfect and the most like itself of all figures; for he considered that the like is infinitely fairer than the unlike.
This he finished off, making the surface smooth all around for many reasons; in the first place, because the living being had no need of eyes when there was nothing remaining outside him to be seen; nor of ears when there was nothing to be heard; and there was no surrounding atmosphere to be breathed; nor would there have been any use of organs by the help of which he might receive his food or get rid of what he had already digested, since there was nothing which went from him or came into him: for there was nothing beside him. Of design he was created thus, his own waste providing his own food, and all that he did or suffered taking place in and by himself. For the Creator conceived that a being which was self-sufficient would be far more excellent than one which lacked anything; and, as he had no need to take anything or defend himself against any one, the Creator did not think it necessary to bestow upon him hands: nor had he any need of feet, nor of the whole apparatus of walking; but the movement suited to his spherical form was assigned to him, being of all the seven that which is most appropriate to mind and intelligence; and he was made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits revolving in a circle. All the other six motions were taken away from him, and he was made not to partake of their deviations. And as this circular movement required no feet, the universe was created without legs and without feet.
Such was the whole plan of the eternal God about the god that was to be, to whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in every direction equidistant from the centre, a body entire and perfect, and formed out of perfect bodies. And in the centre he put the soul, which he diffused throughout the body, making it also to be the exterior environment of it; and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and solitary, yet by reason of its excellence able to converse with itself, and needing no other friendship or acquaintance. Having these purposes in view he created the world a blessed god.
["האדם הוא עולם קטן, העולם הוא אדם גדול, ומה שיש בזה יש בזה" (אבות דרבי נתן, פרק ל"א)
מבואר שהעולם הוא בעל חיים אחד גדול.
לפי זה האדם היה אמור להיות עגול כמו העולם. ואכן כך נראה ממסכת חגיגה יב א:
"אמר רבי אלעזר: אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע, שנאמר: 'למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ' (דברים ד, לב), וכיון שסרח – הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידיו עליו ומיעטו, שנאמר: 'אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה' (תהלים קלט, ה).
אמר רב יהודה אמר רב: אדם הראשון – מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה, שנאמר: 'למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים' ועד קצה השמים. כיון שסרח – הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו, שנאמר 'ותשת עלי כפכה'.
אי הכי קשו קראי אהדדי! [שני הפסוקים סותרים – ממזרח למערב או מהארץ לשמים?] –
אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא [זה וזה אותו שיעור. משמע שהאדם היה עגול, שהרי היה בגודל של כל העולם, וגובהו היה שווה לרחבו]]
Now God did not make the soul after the body, although we are speaking of them in this order; for having brought them together he would never have allowed that the elder should be ruled by the younger; but this is a random manner of speaking which we have, because somehow we ourselves too are very much under the dominion of chance.
Whereas he made the soul in origin and excellence prior to and older than the body, to be the ruler and mistress, of whom the body was to be the subject.
[ויקרא רבה ד ב: אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי: מָשָׁל לְעִירוֹנִי שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי בַּת מְלָכִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּאֲכִילָהּ כָּל מַעֲדַנֵּי מֶלֶךְ, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא חוֹבָתוֹ, לָמָּה? שֶׁהִיא בַּת מְלָכִים. כָּךְ, כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּפְעֹל הָאָדָם עִם נַפְשׁוֹ אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. לָמָּה? לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מִלְמַעְלָה]
שלושת מרכיבי הנפש: א – הלא מתחלק ולא משתנה, השווה. ב – המתחלק, החומרי, השונה. ג – המהות.
And he made her out of the following elements and on this wise: Out of the indivisible and unchangeable, and also out of that which is divisible and has to do with material bodies, he compounded a third and intermediate kind of essence, partaking of the nature of the same and of the other, and this compound he placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and material.
He took the three elements of the same, the other, and the essence, and mingled them into one form, compressing by force the reluctant and unsociable nature of the other into the same. When he had mingled them with the essence and out of three made one, he again divided this whole into as many portions as was fitting, each portion being a compound of the same, the other, and the essence.
[הבלתי מתחלק, הוא הדומה. הוא הבחינה בה הכל אחד, והוא האהבה. הוא משום שהאצלת הבורא היא כמוהו. אמנם ההאצלה עצמה היא הגבלה של הלא מתחלק, צמצום שלו. כמו שביארתי בהקדמה החמישית לביאור על מורה נבוכים עיין שם. היא העדר שחוקק ביש-הלא-מוגבל צורה על ידי שמעדיר חלק ממנו. כשהלא מוגבל הוא לא מוגבל אין האצלה. שהנעשה בו חסרון כלשהו החסרון משרטט גבול ללא מוגבל וזה ציור של צורה.
הצורה מבחינה זו היא חושך, היא מחסירה מהיש שהוא האור. אבל היא גם מגלה אודות היש הלא מוגבל מה שלא היה נודע בלעדיה. האל נודע על ידי מעשיו. על ידי הצמצום שלו. ההעדר מצייר ביש-הלא-מוגבל אותיות שמספרות אודותיו. וכמו שכתב בהלכות יסודי התורה פרק ב' שעל יד התבוננות במעשיו הגדולים הנפלאים באים לידי אהבתו ויראתו. ומעשיו הם הצמצום, ההעדר בשלמותו המתפשטת בלי גבול. מה שהצורה מחשיכה את האור בצמצום זה מצד ההעדר, המתחלק, האחר. ומה שהיא מספרת כבוד אל זה מצד הבלתי מתחלק, שבו הכל אותו דבר אחד ואוהב. כך שהיא אמצעי ביניהם.
זה ביאור הכוונה של דבריו לעיל שהשלוש הם קיום על ידי מיצוע האמצעי.
בתרגום של Lamb כתב כאן בהערה, (זו השלמה למה שכתבתי – לא סתירה):
"The choice of these three as constituents of the Soul is explained by the use of the same terms in the Sophist(244-245) to denote certain “Greatest Kinds” or main categories. As Professor Paul Shorey has aptly observed (Amer. Journ. Philol. ix. p. 298), “It is necessary that the Soul should recognize everywhere . . . the same, the other and essence, those three μέγιστα γένηof the . . .Sophist. Hence on the Greek principle that like is known by like, Plato makes real substances out of these three abstractions and puts them as plastic material into the hands of the Demiurgus for the formation of the Soul.”
עיין בהערות על פילבוס, ברשימה 31, עמ' 25 ו 26 שם בעימוד הסטנדרטי שציינתי אותו בתוך הרשימה, שביארתי בעניין השווה והשונה והמיזוג שלהם באופן ברור הרבה יותר ופשטני יותר, לפי דברי אפלטון שם]
And he proceeded to divide after this manner: – First of all, he took away one part of the whole , and then he separated a second part which was double the first , and then he took away a third part which was half as much again as the second and three times as much as the first , and then he took a fourth part which was twice as much as the second , and a fifth part which was three times the third , and a sixth part which was eight times the first , and a seventh part which was twenty-seven times the first . After this he filled up the double intervals [i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8] and the triple [i.e. between 1, 3, 9, 27] cutting off yet other portions from the mixture and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two kinds of means, the one exceeding and exceeded by equal parts of its extremes [as for example 1, 4/3, 2, in which the mean 4/3 is one-third of 1 more than 1, and one-third of 2 less than 2], the other being that kind of mean which exceeds and is exceeded by an equal number. Where there were intervals of 3/2 and of 4/3 and of 9/8, made by the connecting terms in the former intervals, he filled up all the intervals of 4/3 with the interval of 9/8, leaving a fraction over; and the interval which this fraction expressed was in the ratio of 256 to 243. And thus the whole mixture out of which he cut these portions was all exhausted by him.
מעגל התנועה של השווה, הוא החיצוני, ובפנים מעגל התנועה של השונה:
This entire compound he divided lengthways into two parts, which he joined to one another at the centre like the letter X, and bent them into a circular form, connecting them with themselves and each other at the point opposite to their original meeting-point; and, comprehending them in a uniform revolution upon the same axis, he made the one the outer and the other the inner circle. Now the motion of the outer circle he called the motion of the same, and the motion of the inner circle the motion of the other or diverse. The motion of the same he carried round by the side to the right, and the motion of the diverse diagonally to the left [ימין הוא צד ההתפשטות וה'יש' ושמאל הוא צד הצמצום וההעדר]. And he gave dominion to the motion of the same and like, for that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in ratios of two-and three, three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a direction opposite to one another; and three [Sun, Mercury, Venus] he made to move with equal swiftness [מהירות], and the remaining four [Moon, Saturn, Mars, Jupiter] to move with unequal swiftness to the three and to one another, but in due proportion.
Now when the Creator had framed the soul according to his will, he formed within her the corporeal universe, and brought the two together, and united them centre to centre.
[הקשר בין צורה לחומר
היחס בין צורה לחומר, איך העצם החומרי נוטל חלק באידיאה, הוא שאלה גדולה ובלתי מבוררת שאפלטון נוגע בה בכמה מקומות. הסיבה שאינה מבוררת היא משום שזה עצם סוד הבריאה ואינו ניתן להשגת שכל אנושי. אמנם כאן יש עוד הסתכלות בזה שלא מצאתי במקומות אחרים.
מרכז הוא המקור, הנביעה, ההתחלה, הוא נקודת קבלת מציאותו ממי שמעניק את המציאות. מי שמעניק את המציאות לצורה, מעניק אותה גם לחומר וזה קורה כדבר אחד לגמרי, כי נקודת המרכז שלהם מאוחדת. גם הנפש הכללית של כל המציאות עם כל חומר ארבעת היסודות שהוא חומר המציאות, וגם כל אידיאה פרטית עם החומר הפרטי שלה. כמובן מדובר בצורה שהיא עצמית ולא מקרית. אחדות המרכז היינו שיש כאן בריאה אחת, האצלה אחת, של הצורה והחומר. הם נבראו כאחד וגם קיומם הוא כאחד כיוון שמרכזיהם מאוחדים. שום דבר שנברא לא מתנתק מחבל הטבור ומקבל מציאות עצמית משלו. תמדי הוא יונק מציאות ותלוי בממציא. רק שיש מראית עין חיצונית של קיום עצמאי, אמנם במראית הזו בעצמה יש מקום של טבור שמראה שהוא יונק מממציאו, וזה המרכז, והצורה והחומר מה שמרכזם אחד גורם לאחדותם וליחס ביניהם.]
The soul, interfused everywhere from the centre to the circumference of heaven, of which also she is the external envelopment, herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never ceasing and rational life enduring throughout all time. The body of heaven is visible, but the soul is invisible, and partakes of reason and harmony, and being made by the best of intellectual and everlasting natures, is the best of things created.
תרגום ליבס – עמ' 36 מהמד' הסטנדרטית
And because she is composed of the same and of the other and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself, the soul, when touching anything which has essence, whether dispersed in parts or undivided, is stirred through all her powers, to declare the sameness or difference of that thing and some other; and to what individuals are related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in the world of generation and in the world of immutable being. And when reason, which works with equal truth, whether she be in the circle of the diverse or of the same – in voiceless silence holding her onward course in the sphere of the self-moved – when reason, I say, is hovering around the sensible world and when the circle of the diverse also moving truly imparts the intimations of sense to the whole soul, then arise opinions and beliefs sure and certain. But when reason is concerned with the rational, and the circle of the same moving smoothly declares it, then intelligence and knowledge are necessarily perfected. And if any one affirms that in which these two are found to be other than the soul, he will say the very opposite of the truth.
When the father creator saw the creature which he had made moving and living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy determined to make the copy still more like the original; and as this was eternal, he sought to make the universe eternal, so far as might be. Now the nature of the ideal being was everlasting, but to bestow this attribute in its fulness upon a creature was impossible. Wherefore he resolved to have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he made this image eternal but moving according to number, while eternity itself rests in unity; and this image we call time.
כאן נברא הזמן. אמנם התנועה היתה מאז ומעולם כמו שכתב לעיל, ונמצא שלפי אפלטון הזמן אינו דבר אחד עם התנועה כמו שכותב אריסטו בפיזיקה ספר שמיני פרק א' עיין שם.
וצ"ע, לפי דברין כאן לפני שברא את הזמן היתה הבריאה במצב יותר רחוק מהנצח מאשר אחרי שברא את הזמן.
ונראה שמדובר כאן על התנועה המעגלית של גרמי השמיים. והרי הוא תולה בהם את עניין הזמן, ולכאורה אינם אלא מודדים לזמן ולא שייכים לזמן עצמו. אלא התנועה המעגלית היא הדבר הדומה ביותר לנצחיות, כיוון שאין לה התחלה וסוף, ואין בה שינוי מלבד התנועה המקומית (תנועה במקום, בחלל. ולא שום שינוי אחר) במעגל (גרמי השמיים לא מתפוררים ונשחקים עם הזמן כמו כל גוף שבנוי מארבעת היסודות). והמתבונן רואה שהיא נצחית במהותה, כמו שכותב אריסטו בפיזיקה בספר שמיני פרק א' והלאה. לפני הבריאה היתה תנועה אבל היא היתה כאוטית ,בלי סדר. היה זמן אבל הוא לא היה מדיד. למדוד זמן צריך מחוג כלשהו שתהיה לו תנועה רציפה אחידה במהירות קבועה, וזה לא היה. ואז הוא ברא את גרמי השמיים הנעים בתנועה במהירות אחידה ובמסלול מעגלי ובאופן נצחי. ועל זה הוא מדבר כאן כעל בריאת הזמן]
For there were no days and nights and months and years before the heaven was created, but when he constructed the heaven he created them also. They are all parts of time, and the past and future are created species of time, which we unconsciously but wrongly transfer to the eternal essence; for we say that he "was," he "is," he "will be," but the truth is that "is" alone is properly attributed to him, and that "was" and "will be" only to be spoken of becoming in time, for they are motions, but that which is immovably the same cannot become older or younger by time, nor ever did or has become, or hereafter will be, older or younger, nor is subject at all to any of those states which affect moving and sensible things and of which generation is the cause.
[נצח זה לא רק משך זמן שלא נגמר אלא עניין שונה במהותו]
These are the forms of time, which imitates eternity and revolves according to a law of number. Moreover, when we say that what has become is become and what becomes is becoming, and that what will become is about to become and that the non-existent is non-existent – all these are inaccurate modes of expression. But perhaps this whole subject will be more suitably discussed on some other occasion.
Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order that, having been created together, if ever there was to be a dissolution of them, they might be dissolved together. It was framed after the pattern of the eternal nature, that it might resemble this as far as was possible; for the pattern exists from eternity, and the created heaven has been, and is, and will be, in all time. Such was the mind and thought of God in the creation of time.
[שם פירושו תכלית. כמו שאומרים לשם מה, לאיזו תכלית.
שמיים הם מלשון תכלית גם כן. הם מקום כל התכליות.
הזמן עניינו התכלית. יש הכנה ויש התקדמות להגיע לתכלית. ההתקדמות אל התכלית היא הזמן. כל מעשיך יהיו לשם שמיים. יש ללמוד תורה לשמה. לשם שמיים פירושו לתכלית התכלית. ללמוד ולעבוד לשמה פירושו למען התכלית.
מה שהתנועה היא כלפי תכלית, ולא תנועה סתמית או מעגלית, הופך את התנועה לבחינה של נצח. התכלית מקרינה את האור האחיד שלה על כל שלבי התנועה, על כל נקודות הזמן. כל נקודות הזמן נעות אל התכלית, אותה התכלית, לכן כולן זהות, ונעשות לבחינה של נצח. התכלית אינה ניתנת להגדרה. היא המקור, הנצח, שרגעי הזמן הם הרסיסים שלו. לכן לא צריך לומר לאיזו תכלית, רק לתכלית ותו לא, לשם שמיים]
מתוך הפירוש של Cornford עמ' 102:
The sun and moon and five other stars, which are called the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the numbers of time; and when he had made – their several bodies, he placed them in the orbits in which the circle of the other was revolving – in seven orbits seven stars. First, there was the moon in the orbit nearest the earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction; and this is the reason why the sun and Hermes and Lucifer overtake and are overtaken by each other. To enumerate the places which he assigned to the other stars, and to give all the reasons why he assigned them, although a secondary matter, would give more trouble than the primary. These things at some future time, when we are at leisure, may have the consideration which they deserve, but not at present.
Now, when all the stars which were necessary to the creation of time had attained a motion suitable to them, – and had become living creatures having bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task, moving in the motion of the diverse, which is diagonal, and passes through and is governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and some in a lesser orbit – those which had the lesser orbit revolving faster, and those which had the larger more slowly.
Now by reason of the motion of the same, those which revolved fastest appeared to be overtaken by those which moved slower although they really overtook them; for the motion of the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and some another, that which receded most slowly from the sphere of the same, which was the swiftest, appeared to follow it most nearly.
That there might be some visible measure of their relative swiftness and slowness as they proceeded in their eight courses, God lighted a fire, which we now call the sun, in the second from the earth of these orbits, that it might give light to the whole of heaven, and that the animals, as many as nature intended, might participate in number, learning arithmetic from the revolution of the same and the like.
Thus then, and for this reason the night and the day were created, being the period of the one most intelligent revolution. And the month is accomplished when the moon has completed her orbit and overtaken the sun, and the year when the sun has completed his own orbit.
Mankind, with hardly an exception, have not remarked the periods of the other stars, and they have no name for them, and do not measure them against one another by the help of number, and hence they can scarcely be said to know that their wanderings, being infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time. And yet there is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfils the perfect year when all the eight revolutions, having their relative degrees of swiftness, are accomplished together and attain their completion at the same time, measured by the rotation of the same and equally moving. After this manner, and for these reasons, came into being such of the stars as in their heavenly progress received reversals of motion, to the end that the created heaven might imitate the eternal nature, and be as like as possible to the perfect and intelligible animal.
Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the likeness of the original, but inasmuch as all animals were not yet comprehended therein, it was still unlike. What remained, the creator then proceeded to fashion after the nature of the pattern. Now as in the ideal animal the mind perceives ideas or species of a certain nature and number, he thought that this created animal ought to have species of a like nature and number. There are four such; one of them is the heavenly race of the gods; another, the race of birds whose way is in the air; the third, the watery species; and the fourth, the pedestrian and land creatures.
Of the heavenly and divine, he created the greater part out of fire, that they might be the brightest of all things and fairest to behold, and he fashioned them after the likeness of the universe in the figure of a circle, and made them follow the intelligent motion of the supreme, distributing them over the whole circumference of heaven, which was to be a true cosmos or glorious world spangled with them all over. And he gave to each of them two movements: the first, a movement on the same spot after the same manner, whereby they ever continue to think consistently the same thoughts about the same things; the second, a forward movement, in which they are controlled by the revolution of the same and the like; but by the other five motions they were unaffected, in order that each of them might attain the highest perfection.
And for this reason the fixed stars were created, to be divine and eternal animals, ever-abiding and revolving after the same manner and on the same spot; and the other stars which reverse their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in the manner already described.
האדמה, האל הראשון שבתוך גלגל השמיים:
The earth, which is our nurse, clinging around the pole which is extended through the universe, he framed to be the guardian and artificer of night and day, first and eldest of gods that are in the interior of heaven.
Vain would be the attempt to tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon themselves, and their approximations, and to say which of these deities in their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what order they get behind and before one another, and when they are severally eclipsed to our sight and again reappear, sending terrors and intimations of the future to those who cannot calculate their movements – to attempt to tell of all this without a visible representation of the heavenly system would be labour in vain. Enough on this head; and now let what we have said about the nature of the created and visible gods have an end.
To know or tell the origin of the other divinities is beyond us, and we must accept the traditions of the men of old time who affirm themselves to be the offspring of the gods – that is what they say – and they must surely have known their own ancestors. How can we doubt the word of the children of the gods? Although they give no probable or certain proofs, still, as they declare that they are speaking of what took place in their own family, we must conform to custom and believe them. In this manner, then, according to them, the genealogy of these gods is to be received and set forth.
Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from these sprang Phorcys and Cronos and Rhea, and all that generation; and from Cronos and Rhea sprang Zeus and Here, and all those who are said to be their brethren, and others who were the children of these.
האלים בוראים את שאר הבריות בשיתוף הבורא:
Now, when all of them, both those who visibly appear in their revolutions as well as those other gods who are of a more retiring nature, had come into being, the creator of the universe addressed them in these words: "Gods, children of gods, who are my works, and of whom I am the artificer and father, my creations are indissoluble, if so I will. All that is bound may be undone, but only an evil being would wish to undo that which is harmonious and happy. Wherefore, since ye are but creatures, ye are not altogether immortal and indissoluble, but ye shall certainly not be dissolved, nor be liable to the fate of death, having in my will a greater and mightier bond than those with which ye were bound at the time of your birth. And now listen to my instructions: – Three tribes of mortal beings remain to be created – without them the universe will be incomplete, for it will not contain every kind of animal which it ought to contain, if it is to be perfect. On the other hand, if they were created by me and received life at my hands, they would be on an equality with the gods. In order then that they may be mortal, and that this universe may be truly universal, do ye, according to your natures, betake yourselves to the formation of animals, imitating the power which was shown by me in creating you. The part of them worthy of the name immortal, which is called divine and is the guiding principle of those who are willing to follow justice and you – of that divine part I will myself sow the seed, and having made a beginning, I will hand the work over to you. And do ye then interweave the mortal with the immortal, and make and beget living creatures, and give them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death."
Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously mingled the soul of the universe he poured the remains of the elements, and mingled them in much the same manner; they were not, however, pure as before, but diluted to the second and third degree. And having made it he divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars, and assigned each soul to a star; and having there placed them as in a chariot, he showed them the nature of the universe, and declared to them the laws of destiny, according to which their first birth would be one and the same for all, – no one should suffer a disadvantage at his hands; they were to be sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come forth the most religious of animals; and as human nature was of two kinds, the superior race would here after be called man. [אפשר שהכוונה כאן למקור הידע שהנפשות נולדות איתו, שהרי הן יודעות מלידה על הצורות וההתחלות]
Now, when they should be implanted in bodies by necessity [זהו יסוד החומר וההעדר, עיין ביאור בזה לקמן] , and be always gaining or losing some part of their bodily substance, then in the first place it would be necessary that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation, arising out of irresistible impressions; in the second place, they must have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle; also fear and anger, and the feelings which are akin or opposite to them; if they conquered these they would live righteously, and if they were conquered by them, unrighteously.
עשיית הטוב והרע ושכרם:
He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his native star, and there he would have a blessed and congenial existence. But if he failed in attaining this, at the second birth he would pass into a woman, and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil, he would continually be changed into some brute who resembled him in the evil nature which he had acquired, and would not cease from his toils and transformations until he followed the revolution of the same and the like within him, and overcame by the help of reason the turbulent and irrational mob of later accretions, made up of fire and air and water and earth, and returned to the form of his first and better state. Having given all these laws to his creatures, that he might be guiltless of future evil in any of them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon, and some in the other instruments of time; and when he had sown them he committed to the younger gods the fashioning of their mortal bodies, and desired them to furnish what was still lacking to the human soul, and having made all the suitable additions, to rule over them, and to pilot the mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert from him all but self-inflicted evils.
When the creator had made all these ordinances he remained in his own accustomed nature, and his children heard and were obedient to their father's word, and receiving from him the immortal principle of a mortal creature, in imitation of their own creator they borrowed portions of fire, and earth, and water, and air from the world, which were hereafter to be restored – these they took and welded them together, not with the indissoluble chains by which they were themselves bound, but with little pegs too small to be visible, making up out of all the four elements each separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux. Now these courses, detained as in a vast river, neither overcame nor were overcome; but were hurrying and hurried to and fro, so that the whole animal was moved and progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six directions of motion, wandering backwards and forwards, and right and left, and up and down, and in all the six directions.
For great as was the advancing and retiring flood which provided nourishment, the affections produced by external contact caused still greater tumult – when the body of any one met and came into collision with some external fire, or with the solid earth or the gliding waters, or was caught in the tempest borne on the air, and the motions produced by any of these impulses were carried through the body to the soul. All such motions have consequently received the general name of "sensations," which they still retain. And they did in fact at that time create a very great and mighty movement; uniting with the ever flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the soul, they completely stopped the revolution of the same by their opposing current, and hindered it from predominating and advancing; and they so disturbed the nature of the other or diverse, that the three double intervals [i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8], and the three triple intervals [i.e. between 1, 3, 9, 27], together with the mean terms and connecting links which are expressed by the ratios of 3 : 2, and 4 : 3, and of 9 : 8 – these, although they cannot be wholly undone except by him who united them, were twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and disordered in every possible manner, so that when they moved they were tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse direction, and then again obliquely, and then upside down, as you might imagine a person who is upside down and has his head leaning upon the ground and his feet up against something in the air; and when he is in such a position, both he and the spectator fancy that the right of either is his left, and left right. If, when powerfully experiencing these and similar effects, the revolutions of the soul come in contact with some external thing, either of the class of the same or of the other, they speak of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth; and they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them which has a guiding or directing power; and if again any sensations enter in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul, then the courses of the soul, though they seem to conquer, are really conquered.
התבגרות, התפתחות השכל:
And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal body, now, as in the beginning, is at first without intelligence; but when the flood of growth and nutriment abates, and the courses of the soul, calming down, go their own way and become steadier as time goes on, then the several circles return to their natural form, and their revolutions are corrected, and they call the same and the other by their right names, and make the possessor of them to become a rational being.
And if these combine in him with any true nurture or education, he attains the fulness and health of the perfect man, and escapes the worst disease of all; but if he neglects education he walks lame to the end of his life, and returns imperfect and good for nothing to the world below. This, however, is a later stage; at present we must treat more exactly the subject before us, which involves a preliminary enquiry into the generation of the body and its members, and as to how the soul was created – for what reason and by what providence of the gods; and holding fast to probability, we must pursue our way.
First, then, the gods, imitating the spherical shape of the universe, enclosed the two divine courses in a spherical body, that, namely, which we now term the head, being the most divine part of us and the lord of all that is in us: to this the gods, when they put together the body, gave all the other members to be servants, considering that it partook of every sort of motion. In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and deep places of the earth, but might be able to get over the one and out of the other, they provided the body to be its vehicle and means of locomotion; which consequently had length and was furnished with four limbs extended and flexible; these God contrived to be instruments of locomotion with which it might take hold and find support, and so be able to pass through all places, carrying on high the dwelling-place of the most sacred and divine part of us. Such was the origin of legs and hands, which for this reason were attached to every man; and the gods, deeming the front part of man to be more honourable and more fit to command than the hinder part, made us to move mostly in a forward direction. Wherefore man must needs have his front part unlike and distinguished from the rest of his body.
And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face in which they inserted organs to minister in all things to the providence of the soul, and they appointed this part, which has authority, to be by nature the part which is in front.
And of the organs they first contrived the eyes to give light, and the principle according to which they were inserted was as follows: So much of fire as would not burn, but gave a gentle light, they formed into a substance akin to the light of every-day life; and the pure fire which is within us and related thereto they made to flow through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye, and especially the centre part, so that it kept out everything of a coarser nature, and allowed to pass only this pure element. When the light of day surrounds the stream of vision, then like falls upon like, and they coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision, wherever the light that falls from within meets with an external object. And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of similarity, diffuses the motions of what it touches or what touches it over the whole body, until they reach the soul, causing that perception which we call sight.
But when night comes on and the external and kindred fire departs, then the stream of vision is cut off; for going forth to an unlike element it is changed and extinguished, being no longer of one nature with the surrounding atmosphere which is now deprived of fire: and so the eye no longer sees, and we feel disposed to sleep.
For when the eyelids, which the gods invented for the preservation of sight, are closed, they keep in the internal fire; and the power of the fire diffuses and equalises the inward motions; when they are equalised, there is rest, and when the rest is profound, sleep comes over us scarce disturbed by dreams; but where the greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality, they engender corresponding visions in dreams, which are remembered by us when we are awake and in the external world.
And now there is no longer any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all smooth and bright surfaces. For from the communion of the internal and external fires, and again from the union of them and their numerous transformations when they meet in the mirror, all these appearances of necessity arise, when the fire from the face coalesces with the fire from the eye on the bright and smooth surface. And right appears left and left right, because the visual rays come into contact with the rays emitted by the object in a manner contrary to the usual mode of meeting; but the right appears right, and the left left, when the position of one of the two concurring lights is reversed; and this happens when the mirror is concave and its smooth surface repels the right stream of vision to the left side, and the left to the right. Or if the mirror be turned vertically, then the concavity makes the countenance appear to be all upside down, and the lower rays are driven upwards and the upper downwards.
All these [התופעות הטבעיות] are to be reckoned among the second and co-operative causes which God, carrying into execution the idea of the best as far as possible, uses as his ministers.
They are thought by most men not to be the second, but the prime causes of all things, because they freeze and heat, and contract and dilate, and the like. But they are not so, for they are incapable of reason or intellect; the only being which can properly have mind is the invisible soul, whereas fire and water, and earth and air, are all of them visible bodies. The lover of intellect and knowledge ought to explore causes of intelligent nature first of all, and, secondly, of those things which, being moved by others, are compelled to move others. And this is what we too must do. Both kinds of causes should be acknowledged by us, but a distinction should be made between those which are endowed with mind and are the workers of things fair and good, and those which are deprived of intelligence and always produce chance effects without order or design.
הסיבה לחוש הראיה (הראיה היא מקור הפילוסופיה – וכן השמיעה והדיבור):
Of the second or co-operative causes of sight, which help to give to the eyes the power which they now possess, enough has been said. I will therefore now proceed to speak of the higher use and purpose for which God has given them to us.
The sight in my opinion is the source of the greatest benefit to us, for had we never seen the stars, and the sun, and the heaven, none of the words which we have spoken about the universe would ever have been uttered.
But now the sight of day and night, and the months and the revolutions of the years, have created number, and have given us a conception of time, and the power of enquiring about the nature of the universe; and from this source we have derived philosophy, than which no greater good ever was or will be given by the gods to mortal man.
This is the greatest boon of sight: and of the lesser benefits why should I speak? even the ordinary man if he were deprived of them would bewail his loss, but in vain. Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight to the end that we might behold the courses of intelligence in the heaven, and apply them to the courses of our own intelligence which are akin to them, the unperturbed to the perturbed; and that we, learning them and partaking of the natural truth of reason, might imitate the absolutely unerring courses of God and regulate our own vagaries.
The same may be affirmed of speech and hearing: they have been given by the gods to the same end and for a like reason. For this is the principal end of speech, whereto it most contributes.
Moreover, so much of music as is adapted to the sound of the voice and to the sense of hearing is granted to us for the sake of harmony; and harmony, which has motions akin to the revolutions of our souls, is not regarded by the intelligent votary of the Muses as given by them with a view to irrational pleasure, which is deemed to be the purpose of it in our day, but as meant to correct any discord which may have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her into harmony and agreement with herself; and rhythm too was given by them for the same reason, on account of the irregular and graceless ways which prevail among mankind generally, and to help us against them.
עד כאן הוא ביאר את הבריאה לפי שמים וארץ. שמים הן האידיאות הנצחיות הקבועות, וארץ היא האידיאות שהן צלם נע של המציאות הנצחית שיסוד הווייתו במשהו אחר.
כעת הוא מתחיל מחדש את סיפור הבריאה והפעם מספר גם על החומר הראשון.
זה סיפור הבריאה השני שבתורה:
"אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם"
בריאת שמים וארץ היא ההמשכה של הצורות הנצחיות מהשמים לעשותן צלמים של מה שנצחי. התולדות של זה זהו העשייה של שמים וארץ. בריאה היא עדיין לא התגלמות בחומר. העשייה היא ההתגלמות בחומר. הסיפור מתחיל מחדש לפי המבט מצד ההתגלמות בחומר. וזה מה שעושה אפלטון כאן, מספר מחדש והפעם מהצד של ההתגלמות בחומר.
ההכרחיות (החומר, החושך, התהו ובהו):
Thus far in what we have been saying, with small exception, the works of intelligence have been set forth; and now we must place by the side of them in our discourse the things which come into being through necessity – for the creation is mixed, being made up of necessity and mind.
Mind, the ruling power, persuaded necessity to bring the greater part of created things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when the influence of reason got the better of necessity, the universe was created.
But if a person will truly tell of the way in which the work was accomplished, he must include the other influence of the variable cause as well. Wherefore, we must return again and find another suitable beginning, as about the former matters, so also about these.
[עיין בספרו של Cornford מעמ' 159 והלאה, שם הוא דן באריכות בעניין ה necessity שאפלטון מדבר עליו כאן. הוא מוכיח היטב שאין הכוונה לחוקי הטבע, אלא להיפך, ליסוד כאוטי של מקריות ספונטנית שרירותית חסרת הגיון סיבה וחוקיות.
הוא מזהה את היסוד הזה עם דברי אריסטו בפיזיקה (ספר ב', פרק 8):
קורנפורד עומד על כך שלמפרשים המודרניים בגלל התפישות היהודיות-נוצריות והמעמד של אפלטון קשה לקבל שהאל הבורא אצל אינו בלתי מוגבל ואינו אומניפוטנט. אמנם בתקופה וברקע של אפלטון התפישה של אל אומניפוטנט ובלתי מוגבל עוד לא היתה.
במורה נבוכים עומד על כך שלפי אפלטון החומר הוא קדמון ולא נברא על ידי האל, ורק הצורות נבראו על ידי האל, וזאת בניגוד לדעת הרמב"ם על פי תורת משה שגם החומר נברא על ידי האל יש מאין. מכיוון שלפי אפלטון האל לא ברא את החומר אין תימה שהוא מוגבל על ידו.
החומר הוא היסוד הכאוטי, הבלתי שכלי. השכל מנסה לפתות אותו להסכים לקבל את הצורות השכליות ולבוא על ידי כך לתיקונו.
זה היסוד של זכר ונקבה. החומר הוא בבחינת הנקבה, שיש לפתות אותה לזיווג והתאחדות עם הזכר שהוא בחינת הצורה.
גם לפי תורת משה יש יסוד חומרי כזה בבריאה, היסוד של תהו ובהו, העדר האור, שמולו היה צריך לומר יהי אור, הוא יסוד שנזכר כבר בתחילת סיפור הבריאה ומשמש כמו רקע לה.
הרמב"ן על בראשית א' פסוק א' מבאר גם את פסוק ב', ומבאר איך בפסוק על תהו ובהו נאמרו ארבעת היסודות, עפר מים אויר ואש (כך גם נאמר בספר הזוהר), ושדובר שם על החומר הראשון שלא לבש צורה כלל ולכן אין לו שם. ועיין גם ברש"י על פסוק ב'. וזה מתאים לדברי אפלטון בהמשך על ארבעת היסודות. אפלטון אומר בסמוך שארבעת היסודות קדמו לבריאת שמים וארץ. וזה הפירוש הפשוט של הפסוקים, בראשית ברא אלוהים כו', ורש"י מבאר שבראשית זה סמוך ולא מתפרש "בהתחלה", ואז אמר והארץ היתה תהו ובהו, ומשמע שהיתה מקודם (לשון רש"י: "אם כן תמה על עצמך, שהרי המים קדמו, שהרי כתיב: "וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם", ועדיין לא גילה המקרא בריית המים מתי היתה. הא למדת שקדמו המים לארץ. ועוד, שהשמים מאש ומים נבראו. על כרחך לא לימד המקרא בסדר המוקדמים והמאוחרים כלום.").
הנחש, חטא עץ הדעת וחטא העגל. מוטיב מרכזי בסיפורי המקרא הוא שמה שהבורא מתכנן נכשל, שוב ושוב.
כבר בימי הבריאה, הבורא מצוה על האדמה להוציא עץ פרי והיא מוציאה עץ שאינו פרי, עיין רש"י בראשית א י"א. וכן המדרש על מיעוט הלבנה שבסופו הקב"ה הוצרך להביא קרבן על עצמו, בגלל שהוא חטא שמיעט את הלבנה.
אחר כך התוכנית להושיב את אדם בגן עדן לחיי נצח מאושרים. אחר כך המבול, דור הפלגה, ועוד ועוד. הבורא עצמו כביכול מתנהל בכבדות מול קושי החומר. הוא צריך לחנך את קין ואת נח ואת פרעה ואת בני ישראל היוצאים ממצרים. הוא צריך להוביל אותם ארבעים שנה במדבר כי "אי אפשר" להכניס אותם ישר לארץ. הוא מתלונן על העם קשה העורף, מתחנן לפניהם, כועס, מרצה. – ולא מצליח.
בסיום התנ"ך עם ישראל בגלות, והתכנית האלוהית להוציא את ישראל ממצרים ולהושיבם בארץ ישראל לחיי אושר מושלמים נגמרה בכשלון חרוץ.
עבודת השם ביהדות היא עבודה של פיתוי הטבע החומרי היצרי של האדם לקבל עליו את מרות השכל. על האדם מוטל להשלים את התכניות הבלתי גמורות של האל הבורא, וזאת תוך מסע של מאבק ביסוד החומרי של העולם. שעיקרו על ידי פיתוי החומר לקבל את הצורה, ועל ידי כך לאחד את החומר והצורה ולהביא לתיקון.
החומר הוא יסוד ההעדר, עיין בהקדמה החמישית לביאור על מורה נבוכים שם ביארתי את תפקידו וחשיבותו ולמה הוא הכרחי.
הסטרא אחרא, יצר הרע, השטן, ספר איוב. בגמרא יש עולם שלם של שדים ויצורי אופל וכוחות אופל וכשפים שעשויים להזיק לאדם. ביום הכיפורים מביאים שני שעירים, אחד לה' ואחד לעזאזל. במזמור של פגעים אומרים "כִּי הוּא יַצִּילְךָ מִפַּח יָקוּשׁ מִדֶּבֶר הַוּוֹת. בְּאֶבְרָתוֹ יָסֶךְ לָךְ וְתַחַת כְּנָפָיו תֶּחְסֶה צִנָּה וְסֹחֵרָה אֲמִתּוֹ. לֹא תִירָא מִפַּחַד לָיְלָה מֵחֵץ יָעוּף יוֹמָם. מִדֶּבֶר בָּאֹפֶל יַהֲלֹךְ מִקֶּטֶב יָשׁוּד צָהֳרָיִם. יִפֹּל מִצִּדְּךָ אֶלֶף וּרְבָבָה מִימִינֶךָ אֵלֶיךָ לֹא יִגָּשׁ."
העולם מלא אופל לא שכלי.
אי אפשר לנצח את האופל הזה בכח. עשיית השלום איתו, הפיתוי, הוא המהלך העיקרי של האיחוד וההשלמה.
ועיין לעיל מה שדיבר על המאבק בין הטוב לרע]
To which end we must consider the nature of fire, and water, and air, and earth, such as they were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in this previous state; for no one has as yet explained the manner of their generation, but we speak of fire and the rest of them, whatever they mean, as though men knew their natures, and we maintain them to be the first principles and letters or elements of the whole, when they cannot reasonably be compared by a man of any sense even to syllables or first compounds.
We must gain a view of the real nature of fire and water, air and earth, as it was before the birth of Heaven, and the properties they had before that time; for at present no one has as yet declared their generation, but we assume that men know what fire is, and each of these things, and we call them principles and presume that they are elements1 of the Universe, although in truth they do not so much as deserve to be likened with any likelihood,
1 στοιχεῖα, here applied to physical “elements,” was the regular term for “letters” of the alphabet; Cf. Theaet. 203 B ff.,Rep.402 A ff.]
And let me say thus much: I will not now speak of the first principle or principles of all things, or by whatever name they are to be called, for this reason – because it is difficult to set forth my opinion according to the method of discussion which we are at present employing. Do not imagine, any more than I can bring myself to imagine, that I should be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task. Remembering what I said at first about probability, I will do my best to give as probable an explanation as any other – or rather, more probable; and I will first go back to the beginning and try to speak of each thing and of all. Once more, then, at the commencement of my discourse, I call upon God, and beg him to be our saviour out of a strange and unwonted enquiry, and to bring us to the haven of probability (Cornford כתב שהאל של אפלטון אינו אל מונותיאיסטי שעובדים ומעריצים ומתפללים אליו אלא כעין אלגוריה). So now let us begin again.
מכאן מתחיל מהלך ארוך שיש לעקוב אחריו בדייקנות ולהבינו על בוריו:
This new beginning of our discussion of the universe requires a fuller division than the former; for then we made two classes, now a third must be revealed. The two sufficed for the former discussion: one, which we assumed, was a pattern intelligible and always the same; and the second was only the imitation of the pattern, generated and visible. There is also a third kind which we did not distinguish at the time, conceiving that the two would be enough. But now the argument seems to require that we should set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and dimly seen. What nature are we to attribute to this new kind of being? We reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all generation.
or whereas then we distinguished two Forms,1 we must now declare another third kind. For our former exposition those two were sufficient, one of them being assumed as a Model Form, intelligible and ever uniformly existent, [49a] and the second as the model's Copy, subject to becoming and visible. A third kind we did not at that time distinguish, considering that those two were sufficient; but now the argument seems to compel us to try to reveal by words a Form that is baffling and obscure. What essential property, then, are we to conceive it to possess? This in particular,—that it should be the receptacle, and as it were the nurse, of all Becoming.]
אפלטון מנסה לעמוד על עניין הסתום והחידתי של ההוויה ככל האפשר. כעת הוא מתחיל בנסיון לראות איך הוויית הצורות נעשית בחומר הראשון ובארבעת היסודות.
I have spoken the truth; but I must express myself in clearer language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in particular because I must first raise questions concerning fire and the other elements, and determine what each of them is; for to say, with any probability or certitude, which of them should be called water rather than fire, and which should be called any of them rather than all or some one of them, is a difficult matter. How, then, shall we settle this point, and what questions about the elements may be fairly raised?
In the first place, we see that what we just now called water, by condensation, I suppose, becomes stone and earth; and this same element, when melted and dispersed, passes into vapour and air. Air, again, when inflamed, becomes fire; and again fire, when condensed and extinguished, passes once more into the form of air; and once more, air, when collected and condensed, produces cloud and mist; and from these, when still more compressed, comes flowing water, and from water comes earth and stones once more; and thus generation appears to be transmitted from one to the other in a circle.
[the translation of W.R.M. Lamb: "thus we see the elements passing on to one another, as it would seem, [49d] in an unbroken circle the gift of birth"]
Thus, then, as the several elements never present themselves in the same form, how can any one have the assurance to assert positively that any of them, whatever it may be, is one thing rather than another? No one can.
But much the safest plan is to speak of them as follows: – Anything which we see to be continually changing, as, for example, fire, we must not call "this" or "that," but rather say that it is "of such a nature"; nor let us speak of water as "this"; but always as "such"; nor must we imply that there is any stability in any of those things which we indicate by the use of the words "this" and "that," supposing ourselves to signify something thereby; for they are too volatile to be detained in any such expressions as "this," or "that," or "relative to this," or any other mode of speaking which represents them as permanent. We ought not to apply "this" to any of them, but rather the word "such"; which expresses the similar principle circulating in each and all of them; for example, that should be called "fire" which is of such a nature always, and so of everything that has generation.
[להצביע על משהו ולומר "זה הוא", בלשון ימי הביניים לרמוז עליו, ניתן רק על עצם שהוא צורה וחומר מחוברים חיבור שיש בו מן הקביעות אע"פ שאינו קבוע לגמרי וסופו להיפרד. החומר הראשון אינו מחובר כלל עם הצורות שמצטיירות בו.
אני מעתיק מרשימה 4:
"מה שהיסודות משתנים זה לזה. הנה החומר הראשון הוא אחיד לכולם, והוא בלתי מושג כי דבר אינו יכול להיות נודע אלא על ידי צורתו. אם יש לפנינו עפר מים אויר ואש, אם החומר נע מצורה לצורה או שהוא עומד ואין השתנות, זה נראה אותו הדבר ואי אפשר לדעת. למשל כלי זכוכית עגול שיש לו צינור כניסה ויציאה של מים שקופים. אם המים זורמים או עומדים אי אפשר לדעת. המים הם משל לחומר הראשון, והעיגול לצורה. המים יכולים לזרום וכל פעם לקבל צורת עיגול ולפשוט אותה, או לעמוד, ולמתבונן זה נראה אותו הדבר.
רואים את השינוי בגלל המקום. אם היתה שלולית מים והתייבשה בשמש, החומר שהיה במקום של השלולית היתה לו צורת מים, וכעת באותו מקום עצמו יש חומר עם צורת אויר. וזה מראה את השינוי. או אם באויר נוצרות טיפות על ידי עיבויו, במקום הטיפות היה חומר עם צורת אויר וכעת באותו מקום עצמו יש חומר עם צורת מים, ולומדים מזה שהחומר לובש ופושט צורות גם כשאיננו רואים זאת.
הצורות עצמן גם מספרות את הסיפור של השינוי, כמו מה שקורה כשיש גשם המזג אויר הסגרירי הקודר מספר על שינוי ביסוד האויר. או חום השרב מספר על שינוי וכאב בצורת היסודות. כי התנועה והשינוי וההעדר הם מעצם ההוויה של היסודות ולכן זה מתגלה בצורה שלהן."
בעצמים מורכבים יותר, יש חיבור שיש בו משום קביעות בין חומר לצורה. למשל בשולחן יש חיבור בין העץ לצורת השולחן. לכן הוא עצם. ואפשר להצביע עליו ולומר זה שולחן.
אמנם העץ שממנו מורכב השולחן, הוא בעצמו צורה של עץ, והוא מורכב מחומר שגם הוא יש בו כבר צורה והוא מורכב מעוד חומר עד שנגיע לחומר הראשון. החומר הראשון לא מחובר בקביעות לצורות של היסודות עפר מים אויר ואש, אלא הוא כל הזמן בתנועה, ולכן בשורש כל עצם מורכב כבר מונח ההתפרקות והשינוי שיהיו בסופו. עיין עוד בכל זה ברשימה 4]
That [החומר הראשון] in which the elements severally grow up, and appear, and decay, is alone to be called by the name "this" or "that"; but that which is of a certain nature, hot or white, or anything which admits of opposite equalities, and all things that are compounded of them, ought not to be so denominated.
[הצורות של היסודות הן הפכים. חום וקור, לחות ויובש. האש חמה ויבשה, האורי חם ולח, המים קרים ולחים, העפר קר ויבש. לכן הצורות לא יכולות לשכון בהם במקביל אלא מפנות את המקום זו לזו. העניין של ניגודים עמוק ויסודי, הארכתי בזה בכמה מקומות. עיין בהערות על הפיזיקה, ברשימה 4, ועוד]
Let me make another attempt to explain my meaning more clearly. Suppose a person to make all kinds of figures of gold and to be always transmuting one form into all the rest – somebody points to one of them and asks what it is. By far the safest and truest answer is, That is gold; and not to call the triangle or any other figures which are formed in the gold "these," as though they had existence, since they are in process of change while he is making the assertion; but if the questioner be willing to take the safe and indefinite expression, "such," we should be satisfied.
[המשל דומה לנמשל בכך שיש התייחסות לתכונות או מהות של צורה, דהיינו תכונות הזהב, ולא לעצם שבו חיבור קבוע של צורה וחומר שניתן לומר עליו "זה". כיוון שיש שינוי מתמיד. אמנם המשל נבדל מהנמשל בכך שבמשל ההתייחסות היא תכונות של הזהב שהוא החומר, ואילו בנמשל אין לחומר הראשון שום תכונות וההתייחסות היא לתכונות של הצורות של היסודות.
קורנפורד מביא כאן דברים חשובים של פרוקלוס:
And the same argument applies to the universal nature which receives all bodies – that must be always called the same; for, while receiving all things, she never departs at all from her own nature, and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that of any of the things which enter into her; she is the natural recipient of all impressions, and is stirred and informed by them, and appears different from time to time by reason of them.
[הדרך שהצורות מוטבעות בחומר הראשון דומה לצורות הגלים שהרוח מטביעה בים. הגלים אמנם מצטיירים ומוטבעים ונודעים, אבל הים נשאר ים. הוא לא הופך לחומר של הגלים כיוון שאין חיבור קבוע.
וזה שכתב הרמב"ם במורה ח"א פע"ב:
"וכל הוה נפסד, אמנם יתהוה מן היסודות ואליהם יפסד, ומן היסודות יתהוו קצתם מקצתם ויפסדו קצתם אל קצתם, שחומר הכל אחד. ואי-אפשר הימצא חומר מבלי צורה, ולא תימצא צורה טבעית מאלו ההויים הנפסדים מבלי חומר; יהיה הענין אם-כן בהויות והפסדות, והיות כל מה שיתהוה מהם ויפסיד אליהם חוזר חלילה, כדמות סיבוב הגלגל, עד שתהיה תנועת החומר הזה בעל הצורה בבא בו הצורות זו אחר זו כתנועת הגלגל באנה [במקום], כהשתנות ההנחות בעצמם לכל חלק ממנו."
קורנפורד כותב שהצורות בחומר הראשון משתקפות בו כמו צורות במראה. וכעין זה כתב במורה נבוכים חלק א' פרק כ"ח:
"[על הפסוק: "וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר."] אבל אנחנו כפי ענין המאמר אי אפשר מבלתי שנפרש בו דבר. ואומר, כי אמרו ותחת רגליו רוצה בו מסבתו ובגללו כמו שבארנו. ואשר השיגוהו הוא אמתת החומר הראשון, אשר היה מאתו יתעלה והוא סבת מציאותו. והסתכל אמרו כמעשה לבנת הספיר, ואלו היתה הכוונה המראה היה אומר כלבנת הספיר, והוסיף מעשה, כי החומר כמו שידעת (פרק ח' חלק ג') מקבל לעולם מתפעל לפי בחינת טבעו, ואין פעולה לו כי אם במקרה, כמו שהצורה פועלת לעולם בעצמה מתפעלת במקרה, כמו שהתבאר בספרים הטבעיים, ולזה אמר עליו כמעשה. ואמנם לבנת הספיר, הוא לשון על הזוהר לא על המראה הלבן, כי לובן הספיר אינו מראה לבן, אבל זוהר לבד, והזוהר אינו מראה כמו שהתבאר בספרים הטבעיים, שאלו היה מראה לא היה מראה המראים כולם מאחריו ומקבלם. אך כאשר היה הגשם המזהיר נעדר המראים כולם, יקבל מפני זה המראים כולם זה אחר זה, וזה כדמות החומר הראשון אשר הוא בבחינת אמתתו נעדר הצורות כולם, ולזה הוא מקבל הצורות כולם זו אחר זו, והיתה השגתם אם כן החומר הראשון, ויחסו לשם להיותו ראש בריאותיו המחייב ההויה וההפסד והוא מחדשו, והנה יבאו בזה הענין גם כן דברים. ודע שאתה צריך לכמו זה הפירוש, ואפילו לפירוש אונקלוס אשר אמר, ותחות כורסי יקריה, כלומר כי החומר הראשון הוא גם כן באמת תחת השמים הנקראים כסא כמו שקדם, ולא העירני אל זה הפירוש המופלא והמציא זה הענין אלא דבר מצאתי לרבי אליעזר בן הורקנוס תשמענו בקצת פרקי זה המאמר (פרק כ"ו חלק ב')"
חלק ב פרק כ"ו:
"אלא שעל כל פנים כבר הועילנו בו תועלת גדולה, שהוא באר שחמר השמים בלתי חמר הארץ, ושהם שני חמרים נבדלים מאד, האחד מיוחס לו ית' למעלתו וגדולתו והוא מאור לבושו, והחומר האחר רחוק מאורו יתעלה וזוהרו, והוא החומר התחתון, ושמהו משלג שהוא תחת כסא הכבוד, וזהו אשר שמני שאפרש מאמר התורה ותחת רגליו כמעשה לבנת הספיר, שהם השיגו במראה הנבואה ההיא אמתת החמר הראשון והתחתון, כי אונקלוס שם רגליו שבים אל הכסא כמו שבארתי לך, וזה באר שהלבן ההוא שתחת הכסא הוא חמר הארץ, וכבר שנה ר"א זה הענין בעצמו וגלה בו, ר"ל היותם שני חמרים עליוני ותחתוני, ושאין חמר הכל אחד, וזהו סוד גדול לא תקל בביאור גדולי חכמי ישראל בו, שהוא סוד מסודות המציאות וסתר מסתרי התורה, בבראשית רבה אמר, רא"א כל מה שיש בשמים בריאתו מן השמים, וכל מה שיש בארץ בריאתו מן הארץ, והתבונן איך באר לך זה החכם כי חמר כל מה שבארץ חמר אחד משותף, ר"ל כל מה שתחת גלגל הירח. וחמר כל השמים ומה שבהם חמר אחד אינו זה. ובאר בפרקיו זה החדוש המוסיף, ר"ל מעלת החמר ההוא וקרבתו לו, וחסרון זה וגבול מקומו גם כן, ודע זה: ]
But the forms which enter into and go out of her are the likenesses of real existences modelled after their patterns in wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter investigate.
For the present we have only to conceive of three natures: first, that which is in process of generation [המציאות של צורות מוטבעות בחומר היוצרות עצמים קיימים שמהווים את המציאות בכללה, כל זה הוא לעולם תהליך יצירה ולא יצירה מוגמרת, כיוון שהתנועה לא נפסקת]; secondly, that in which the generation takes place [החומר. הוא עצמו אינו משתנה כי הצורות לא מוטבעות בו בקביעות]; and thirdly, that of which the thing generated is a resemblance [עולם האידיאות].
And we may liken the receiving principle to a mother [החומר הראשון הבלתי משתנה], and the source or spring to a father [עולם האידיאות, והאב, הדמיורגוס, השכל הפועל, שמשפיע את הצורות אל החומר], and the intermediate nature to a child [הצורות שאנו רואים בחומר וקוראים להן עצמים והן המציאות שלנו שהיא כל הזמן בהתהוות]; and may remark further, that if the model is to take every variety of form, then the matter in which the model is fashioned will not be duly prepared, unless it is formless, and free from the impress of any of these shapes which it is hereafter to receive from without. [בהכרח לומר שהחומר הראשון מקבל את הצורות כדרך שהים מקבל את צורות הגלים, כי אם לא כן לא הי היכול לקבל לנצ כל הזמן עוד ועוד צורות חדשות, כי הצורה החדשה אם היתה צריכ הלהיות מוטבעת על חומר שכבר יש בו צורה קבועה, לא היתה יכולה להיות מה שהיא]
For if the matter were like any of the supervening forms, then whenever any opposite or entirely different nature was stamped upon its surface, it would take the impression badly, because it would intrude its own shape. Wherefore, that which is to receive all forms should have no form; as in making perfumes they first contrive that the liquid substance which is to receive the scent shall be as inodorous as possible; or as those who wish to impress figures on soft substances do not allow any previous impression to remain, but begin by making the surface as even and smooth as possible.
In the same way that which is to receive perpetually and through its whole extent the resemblances of all eternal beings ought to be devoid of any particular form. Wherefore, the mother and receptacle of all created and visible and in any way sensible things, is not to be termed earth, or air, or fire, or water, or any of their compounds or any of the elements from which these are derived, but is an invisible and formless being which receives all things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most incomprehensible. In saying this we shall not be far wrong ; as far, however, as we can attain to a knowledge of her from the previous considerations, we may truly say that fire is that part of her nature which from time to time is inflamed, and water that which is moistened, and that the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the impressions of them.
Let us consider this question more precisely. Is there any self-existent fire ? and do all those things which we call self-existent exist ? or are only those things which we see, or in some way perceive through the bodily organs, truly existent, and nothing whatever besides them ? And is all that which, we call an intelligible essence nothing at all, and only a name? Here is a question which we must not leave unexamined or undetermined, nor must we affirm too confidently that there can be no decision ; neither must we interpolate in our present long discourse a digression equally long, but if it is possible to set forth a great principle in a few words, that is just what we want.
Does there exist any self-subsisting fire [51c] or any of those other objects which we likewise term “self-subsisting realities”? Or is it only these things which we see, or otherwise perceive by means of bodily senses, that exist, possessed of sensible reality; beside which no other things exist anywhere or anyhow, and it is merely an idle assertion of ours that there always exists an intelligible Form of every object, whereas it is really nothing more than a verbal phrase?" (נשמע em, כמו ויכוח עם אריסטו)]
Thus I state my view : — If mind and true opinion are two distinct classes, then I say that there certainly are these self-existent ideas unperceived by sense, and apprehended only by the mind ; if, however, as some say, true opinion differs in no respect from mind, then everything that we perceive through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain.
But we must affirm that to be distinct, for they have a distinct origin and are of a different nature ; the one is implanted in us by instruction, the other by persuasion ; the one is always accompanied by true reason, the other is without reason ; the one cannot be overcome by persuasion, but the other can : and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind is the attribute of the gods and of very few men.
Now these two Kinds must be declared to be two, because they have come into existence separately and are unlike in condition. For the one of them arises in us by teaching, the other by persuasion;]
Wherefore also we must acknowledge that there is one kind of being which is always the same, uncreated and indestructible [lamb: the self-identical Form, ungenerated and indestructible], never receiving anything into itself from without, nor itself going out to any other, but invisible and imperceptible by any sense, and of which the contemplation is granted to intelligence only. [זה מה שכינה לעיל אב]
And there is another nature of the same name with it, and like to it, perceived by sense, created [כמו שתיאר לעיל את הדמיורגוס בורא], always in motion, becoming in place and again vanishing out of place, which is apprehended by opinion and sense. [זה מה שכינה לעיל ילד]
[lamb: and a second Kind is that which is named after the former and similar thereto, an object perceptible by sense, generated, ever carried about, becoming in a place and out of it again perishing, apprehensible by Opinion with the aid of Sensation;]
And there is a third nature [מה שכינה לעיל אם. הוא החומר הראשון, והוא היסוד של השתיים הבלתי מוגדר שמדובר בו בתורת אפלטון שבעל פה שביאר ברמז במטאפיזיקה ספרים 13-14, העתקתי עם הערות בסוף רשימה 5], which is space, and is eternal, and admits not of destruction and provides a home for all created things, and is apprehended without the help of sense, by a kind of spurious reason, and is hardly real ; which we beholding as in a dream, say of all existence that it must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence. Of these and other things of the same kind, relating to the true and waking reality of nature, we have only this dreamlike sense, and we are unable to cast off sleep and determine the truth about them. For an image, since the reality, after which it is modelled, does not belong to it, and it exists ever as the fleeting shadow of some other, must be inferred to be in another [i.e. in space ], grasping existence in some way or other, or it could not be at all. But true and exact reason, vindicating the nature of true being, maintains that while two things [i.e. the image and space] are different they cannot exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.
[Lamb [ההדגשות במקור]: and a third Kind is ever-existing Place,[52b] which admits not of destruction, and provides room for all things that have birth, itself being apprehensible by a kind of bastard reasoning by the aid of non-sensation, barely an object of belief; for when we regard this we dimly dream and affirm that it is somehow necessary that all that exists should exist in some spot and occupying some place, and that that which is neither on earth nor anywhere in the Heaven is nothing. So because of all these and other kindred notions, we are unable also on waking up to distinguish clearly the unsleeping and truly subsisting substance, owing to our dreamy condition, [52c] or to state the truth—how that it belongs to a copy—seeing that it has not for its own even that substance for which it came into being, but fleets ever as a phantom of something else—to come into existence in some other thing, clinging to existence as best it may, on pain of being nothing at all; whereas to the aid of the really existent there comes the accurately true argument, that so long as one thing is one thing, and another something different, neither of the two will ever come to exist in the other so that the same thing becomes simultaneously [52d] both one and two. (נראה מכוון נגד אריסטו)]
Thus have I concisely given the result of my thoughts ; and my verdict is that being [האב. האחד] and space [האם. השתיים הבלתי מוגדר. החומר הראשון] and generation [הילד. ההתהוות המתמדת], these three, existed in their three ways before the heaven;
[זה הפסוק בראשית א ב, תהו ובהו שהיה לפני השמיים. השמיים הוא התכליות והוא היושר והתהו הוא העיגולים.]
and that the nurse of generation, moistened by water and inflamed by fire, and receiving the forms of earth and air, and experiencing all the affections which accompany these, presented a strange variety of appearances ; and being full of powers which were neither similar nor equally balanced, was never in any part in a state of equipoise, but swaying unevenly hither and thither, was shaken by them, and by its motion again shook them ; and the elements when moved were separated and carried continually, some one way, some another ; as, when rain is shaken and winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and the loose and light particles in another. In this manner, the four kinds or elements were then shaken by the receiving vessel, which, moving like a winnowing machine, scattered far away from one another the elements most unlike, and forced the most similar elements into dose contact. Wherefore also the various elements had different places before they were arranged so as to form the universe. At first, they were all without reason and measure. But when the world began to get into order, fire and water and earth and air had only certain faint traces of themselves, and were altogether such as everything might be expected to be in the absence of God ; this, I say, was their nature at that time, and God fashioned them by form and number.
התהוות העולם המסודר אחרי התהו ובהו:
Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we say that God made them as far as possible the fairest and best, out of things which were not fair and good. And now I will endeavour to show you the disposition and generation of them by an unaccustomed argument, which am compelled to use ; but I believe that you will be able to follow me, for your education has made you familiar with the methods of science.
In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water and air are bodies. And every sort of body possesses solidity, and every solid must necessarily be contained in planes ; and every plane rectilinear figure is composed of triangles ;
[Lamb: In the first place, then, it is plain I presume to everyone that fire and earth and water and air are solid bodies; and the form of a body, in every case, possesses depth also. Further, it is absolutely necessary that depth should be bounded by a plane surface; and the rectilinear plane is composed of triangles.]
and all triangles are originally of two kinds, both of which are made up of one right and two acute angles ; one of them has at either end of the base the half of a divided right angle, having equal sides, while in the other the right angle is divided into unequal parts, having unequal sides.
These, then, proceeding by a combination of probability with demonstration, we assume to be the original elements of fire and the other bodies ; but the principles which are prior to these God only knows, and he of men who is the friend God. [כאן נרמז שהדברים יש להם עוד עומק והוא תורת סוד שמתקבלת בנבואה.]
And next we have to determine what are the four most beautiful bodies which are unlike one another, and of which some are capable of resolution into one another ; for having discovered thus much, we shall know the true origin of earth and fire and of the proportionate and intermediate elements. And then we shall not be willing to allow that there are any distinct kinds of visible bodies fairer than these. Wherefore we must endeavour to construct the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able to say that we have sufficiently apprehended their nature.
Now of the two triangles, the isosceles has one form only ; the scalene or unequal-sided has an infinite number. Of the infinite forms we must select the most beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order, and any one who can point out a more beautiful form than ours for the construction of these bodies, shall carry off the palm, not as an enemy, but as a friend.
Now, the one which we maintain to be the most beautiful of all the many triangles (and we need not speak of the others) is that of which the double forms a third triangle which is equilateral ; the reason of this would be long to tell ; he who disproves what we are saying, and shows that we are mistaken, may claim a friendly victory. Then let us choose two triangles, out of which fire and the other elements have been constructed, one isosceles, the other having the square of the longer side equal to three times the square of the lesser side.
Now is the time to explain what was before obscurely said: there was an error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and into one another ; this, I say, was an erroneous supposition, for there are generated from the triangles which we have selected four kinds – three from the one which has the sides unequal; the fourth alone is framed out of the isosceles triangle. Hence they cannot all be resolved into one another, a great number of small bodies being combined into a few large ones, or the converse. But three of them can be thus resolved and compounded, for they all spring from one, and when the greater bodies are broken up, many small bodies will spring up out of them and take their own proper figures ; or, again, when many small bodies are dissolved into their triangles, if they become one, they will form one large mass of another kind. So much for their passage into one another.
I have now to speak of their several kinds, and show out of what combinations of numbers each of them was formed.
The first will be the simplest and smallest construction, and its element is that triangle which has its hypotenuse twice the lesser side. When two such triangles are joined at the diagonal, and this is repeated three times, and the triangles rest their diagonals and shorter sides on the same point as a centre, a single equilateral triangle is formed out of six triangles ; and four equilateral triangles, if put together, make out of every three plane angles one solid angle, being that which is nearest to the most obtuse of plane angles ; and out of the combination of these four angles arises the first solid form which distributes into equal and similar parts the whole circle in which it is inscribed.
The second species of solid is formed out of the same triangles, which unite as eight equilateral triangles and form one solid angle out of four plane angles, and out of six such angles the second body is completed. And the third body is made up of 120 triangular elements, forming twelve solid angles, each of them included in five plane equilateral triangles, having altogether twenty bases, each of which is an equilateral triangle.
The one element [that is, the triangle which has its hypotenuse twice the lesser side] having generated these figures, generated no more ; but the isosceles triangle produced the fourth elementary figure, which is compounded of four such triangles, joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral quadrangle. Six of these united form eight solid angles, each of which is made by the combination of three plane right angles ; the figure of the body thus composed is a cube, having six plane quadrangular equilateral bases. There was yet a fifth combination which God used in the delineation of the universe.
Now, he who, duly reflecting on all this, enquires whether the worlds are to be regarded as indefinite or definite in number, will be of opinion that the notion of their indefiniteness is characteristic of a sadly indefinite and ignorant mind. He, however, who raises the question whether they are to be truly regarded as one or five, takes up a more reasonable position. Arguing from probabilities, I am of opinion that they are one ; another, regarding the question from another point of view, will be of another mind. But, leaving this enquiry, let us proceed to distribute the elementary forms, which have now been created in idea, among the four elements.
To earth, then, let us assign the cubical form ; for earth is the most immoveable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies, and that which has the most stable bases must of necessity be of such a nature. Now, of the triangles which we assumed at first, that which has two equal sides is by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides ; and of the compound figures which are formed out of either, the plane equilateral quadrangle has necessarily, a more stable basis than the equilateral triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this figure to earth, we adhere to probability ; and to water we assign that one of the remaining forms which is the least moveable ; and the most moveable of them to fire ; and to air that which is intermediate. Also we assign the smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in size to air ; and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in acuteness to, air, and the third to water. Of all these elements, that which has the fewest bases must necessarily be the most moveable, for it must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the lightest as being composed of the smallest number of similar particles : and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the third body in the third degree. Let it be agreed, then, both according to strict reason and according to probability, that the pyramid is the solid which is the original element and seed of fire ; and let us assign the element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to water. We must imagine all these to be so small that no single particle of any of the four kinds is seen by us on account of their smallness : but when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen. And the ratios of their numbers, motions, and other properties, everywhere God, as far as necessity allowed or gave consent, has exactly perfected, and harmonised in due proportion.
[יש לזה שייכות לגבולי אלכסון הכתוב בספר יצירה ועיין פרדס רימונים כ"א ז'. וכמ"ש המקובלים שבכל דבר יש עשר ספירות עד הגרגר הקטן ביותר של ההוויה. וכמו שגוף האדם לפי המקובלים גם בגשמיות יש בו ציור הצורות העליונות ועניינן, כך גם גוף העולם, שהרי העולם הוא כדמות אדם. וד' היסודות הן צירופים שונים של הספירות וכמ"ש בספרי קבלה ואכמ"ל]
From all that we have just been saying about the elements or kinds, the most probable conclusion is as follows: earth, when meeting with fire and dissolved by its sharpness, whether the dissolution take place in the fire itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and thither, until its parts, meeting together and mutually harmonising, again become earth ; for they can never take any other form. But water, when divided by fire or by air, on reforming, may become one part fire and two parts air ; and a single volume of air divided becomes two of fire. Again, when a small body of fire is contained in a larger body of air or water or earth, and both are moving, and the fire struggling is overcome and broken up, then two volumes of fire form one volume of air ; and when air is overcome and cut up into small pieces, two and a half parts of air are condensed into one part of water.
Let us consider the matter in another way. When one of the other elements is fastened upon by fire, and is cut by the sharpness of its angles and sides, it coalesces with the fire, and then ceases to be cut by them any longer. For no element which is one and the same with itself can be changed by or change another of the same kind and in the same state. But so long as in the process of transition the weaker is fighting against the stronger, the dissolution continues. Again, when a few small particles, enclosed in many larger ones, are in process of decomposition and extinction, they only cease from their tendency to extinction when they consent to pass into the conquering nature, and fire becomes air and air water.
But if bodies of another kind go and attack them [i.e. the small particles], the latter continue to be dissolved until, being completely forced back and dispersed, they make their escape to their own kindred, or else, being overcome and assimilated to the conquering power, they remain where they are and dwell with their victors, and from being many become one.
And owing to these affections, all things are changing their place, for by the motion of the receiving vessel the bulk of each class is distributed into its proper place ; but those things which become unlike themselves and like other things, are hurried by the shaking into the place of the things to which they grow like.
Now all unmixed and primary bodies are produced by such causes as these. As to the subordinate species which are included in the greater kinds, they are to be attributed to the varieties in the structure of the two original triangles. For either structure did not originally produce the triangle of one size only, but some larger and some smaller, and there are as many sizes as there are species of the four elements. Hence when they are mingled with themselves and with one another there is an endless variety of them, which those who would arrive at the probable truth of nature ought duly to consider.
Unless a person comes to an understanding about the nature and conditions of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion which follows. Something has been said of this matter already, and something more remains to be said, which is, that motion never exists in what is uniform. For to conceive that anything can be moved without a mover is hard or indeed impossible, and equally impossible to conceive that there can be a mover unless there be something which can be moved – motion cannot exist where either of these are wanting, and for these to be uniform is impossible; wherefore we must assign rest to uniformity and motion to the want of uniformity.
Now inequality is the cause of the nature which is wanting in uniformity; and of this we have already described the origin.
[1 Cf. 53 C ff.: the varying shapes and sizes of the primary triangles account for the “inequality.”. lamb]
But there still remains the further point – why things when divided after their kinds do not cease to pass through one another and to change their place – which we will now proceed to explain.
In the revolution of the universe are comprehended all the four elements, and this being circular and having a tendency to come together, compresses everything and will not allow any place to be left void. Wherefore, also, fire above all things penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the elements ; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to their degrees of rarity. For those things which are composed of the largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and those which are composed of the smallest particles have the least. And the contraction caused by the compression thrusts the smaller particles into the interstices of the larger. And thus, when the small parts are placed side by side with the larger, and the lesser divide the greater and the greater unite the lesser, all the elements are borne up and down and hither and thither towards their own places ; for the change in the size of each changes its position in space. And these causes generate an inequality which is always maintained, and is continually creating a perpetual motion of the elements in all time.
In the next place we have to consider that there are divers kinds of fire. There are, for example, first, flame ; and secondly, those emanations of flame which do not burn but only give light to the eyes ; thirdly, the remains of fire, which are seen in red-hot embers after the flame has been extinguished. There are similar differences in the air ; of which the brightest part is called the aether, and the most turbid sort mist and darkness ; and there are various other nameless kinds which arise from the inequality of the triangles. Water, again, admits in the first place of a division into two kinds ; the one liquid and the other fusile. The liquid kind is composed of the small and unequal particles of water ; and moves itself and is moved by other bodies owing to the want of uniformity and the shape of its particles ; whereas the fusile kind, being formed of large and uniform particles, is more stable than the other, and is heavy and compact by reason of its uniformity.
But when fire gets in and dissolves the particles and destroys the uniformity, it has greater mobility, and becoming fluid is thrust forth by the neighbouring air and spreads upon the earth ; and this dissolution of the solid masses is called melting, and their spreading out upon the earth flowing.
Again, when the fire goes out of the fusile substance, it does not pass into vacuum, but into the neighbouring air ; and the air which is displaced forces together the liquid and still moveable mass into the place which was occupied by the fire, and unites it with itself. Thus compressed the mass resumes its equability, and is again at unity with itself, because the fire which was the author of the inequality has retreated ; and this departure of the fire is called cooling, and the coming together which follows upon it is termed congealment. Of all the kinds termed fusile, that which is the densest and is formed out of the finest and most uniform parts is that most precious possession called gold, which is hardened by filtration through rock ; this is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour. A shoot of gold, which is so dense as to be very hard, and takes a black colour, is termed adamant [a legendary rock or mineral to which many, often contradictory, properties were attributed, formerly associated with diamond or lodestone. google translate]. There is also another kind which has parts nearly like gold, and of which there are several species ; it is denser than gold, and it contains a small and fine portion of earth, and is therefore harder, yet also lighter because of the great interstices which it has within itself ; and this substance, which is one of the bright and denser kinds of water, when solidified is called copper.
There is an alloy of earth mingled with it, which, when the two parts grow old and are disunited, shows itself separately and is called rust. The remaining phenomena of the same kind there will be no difficulty in reasoning out by the method of probabilities. A man may sometimes set aside meditations about eternal things, and for recreation turn to consider the truths of generation which are probable only ; he will thus gain a pleasure not to be repented of, and secure for himself while he lives a wise and moderate pastime. Let us grant ourselves this indulgence, and go through the probabilities relating to the same subjects which follow next in order.
Water which is mingled with fire, so much as is fine and liquid (being so called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the ground), and soft, because its bases give way are less stable than those of earth, when separated from fire and air and isolated, becomes more uniform, and by their retirement is compressed into itself ; and if the condensation be very great, the water above the earth becomes hail [ברד], but on the earth, ice; and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only half solid, when above the earth is called snow, and when upon the earth, and condensed from dew, hoarfrost.
Then, again, there are the numerous kinds of water which have been mingled with one another, and are distilled through plants which grow in the earth ; and this whole class is called by the name of juices or saps. The unequal admixture of these fluids creates a variety of species ; most of them are nameless, but four which are of a fiery nature are clearly distinguished and have names. First there is wine, which warms the soul as well as the body : secondly, there is the oily nature, which is smooth and divides the visual ray, and for this reason is bright and shining and of a glistening appearance, including pitch, the juice of the castor berry, oil itself, and other things of a like kind : thirdly, there is the class of substances which expand the contracted parts of the mouth, until they return to their natural state, and by reason of this property create sweetness; – these are included under the general name of honey : and, lastly, there is a frothy nature, which differs from all juices, having a burning quality which dissolves the flesh ; it is called opos (a vegetable acid).
As to the kinds of earth, that which is filtered through water passes into stone in the following manner: – The water which mixes with the earth and is broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into its own place. But as there is no surrounding vacuum it thrusts away the neighbouring air, and this being rendered heavy, and, when it is displaced, having been poured around the mass of earth, forcibly compresses it and drives it into the vacant space whence the new air had come up ; and the earth when compressed by the air into an indissoluble union with water becomes rock.
The fairer sort is that which is made up of equal and similar parts and is transparent; that which has the opposite qualities is inferior. But when all the watery part is suddenly drawn out by fire, a more brittle substance is formed, to which we give the name of pottery. Sometimes also moisture may remain, and the earth which has been fused by fire becomes, when cool, a certain stone of a black colour. A like separation of the water which had been copiously mingled with them may occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny nature ; out of either of them a half solid body is then formed, soluble in water – the one, soda, which is used for purging away oil and earth, and other, salt, which harmonizes so well in combinations pleasing to the palate, and is, as the law testifies, a substance dear to the gods.
The compounds of earth and water are not soluble by water, but by fire only, and for this reason: – Neither fire nor air melt masses of earth ; for their particles, being smaller than the interstices in its structure, have plenty of room to move without forcing their way, and so they leave the earth unmelted and undissolved ; but particles of water, which are larger, force a passage, and dissolve and melt the earth. Wherefore earth when not consolidated by force is dissolved by water only; when consolidated, by nothing but fire ; for this is the only body which can find an entrance. The cohesion of water again, when very strong, is dissolved by fire only when weaker, then either by air or fire – the former entering the interstices, and the latter penetrating even the triangles. But nothing can dissolve air, when strongly condensed, which does not reach the elements or triangles; or if not strongly condensed, then only fire can dissolve it.
As to bodies composed of earth and water, while the water occupies the vacant interstices of the earth in them which are compressed by force, the particles of water which approach them from without, finding no entrance, flow around the entire mass and leave it undissolved ; but the particles of fire, entering into the interstices of the water, do to the water what water does to earth and fire to air, and are the sole causes of the compound body of earth and water liquefying and becoming fluid. Now these bodies are of two kinds ; some of them, such as glass and the fusible sort of stones, have less water than they have earth ; on the other hand, substances of the nature of wax and incense have more of water entering into their composition.
I have thus shown the various classes of bodies as they are diversified by their forms and combinations and changes into one another, and now I must endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them.
In the first place, the bodies which I have been describing are necessarily objects of sense. But we have not yet considered the origin of flesh, or what belongs to flesh, or of that part of the soul which is mortal. And these things cannot be adequately explained without also explaining the affections which are concerned with sensation, nor the latter without the former: and yet to explain them together is hardly possible; for which reason we must assume first one or the other and afterwards examine the nature of our hypothesis. In order, then, that the affections may follow regularly after the elements, let us presuppose the existence of body and soul.
First, let us enquire what we mean by saying that fire is hot ; and about this we may reason from the dividing or cutting power which it exercises on our bodies. We all of us feel that fire is sharp ; and we may further consider the fineness of the sides, and the sharpness of the angles, and the smallness of the particles, and the swiftness of the motion – all this makes the action of fire violent and sharp, so that it cuts whatever it meets. And we must not forget that the original figure of fire [i.e. the pyramid], more than any other form, has a dividing power which cuts our bodies into small pieces (Kepmatizei), and thus naturally produces that affection which we call heat ; and hence the origin of the name (thepmos, Kepma).
Now, the opposite of this is sufficiently manifest ; nevertheless we will not fail to describe it. For the larger particles of moisture which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us ; and this from being unequal and disturbed, is forced by them into a state of rest, which is due to equability and compression. But things which are contracted contrary to nature are by nature at war, and force themselves apart; and to this war and convulsion the name of shivering and trembling is given ; and the whole affection and the cause of the affection are both termed cold.
That is called hard to which our flesh yields, and soft which yields to our flesh ; and things are also termed hard and soft relatively to one another. That which yields has a small base ; but that which rests on quadrangular bases is firmly posed and belongs to the class which offers the greatest resistance ; so too does that which is the most compact and therefore most repellent.
The nature of the light and the heavy will be best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and below ; for it is quite a mistake to suppose that the universe is parted into two regions, separate from and opposite to each other, the one a lower to which all things tend which have any bulk, and an upper to which things only ascend against their will. For as the universe is in the form of a sphere, all the extremities, being equidistant from the centre, are equally extremities, and the centre, which is equidistant from them, is equally to be regarded as the opposite of them all. Such being the nature of the world, when a person says that any of these points is above or below, may he not be justly charged with using an improper expression ? For the centre of the world cannot be rightly called either above or below, but is the centre and nothing else ; and the circumference is not the centre, and has in no one part of itself a different relation to the centre from what it has in any of the opposite parts. Indeed, when it is in every direction similar, how can one rightly give to it names which imply opposition ? For if there were any solid body in equipoise at the centre of the universe, there would be nothing to draw it to this extreme rather than to that, for they are all perfectly similar ; and if a person were to go round the world in a circle, he would often, when standing at the antipodes of his former position, speak of the same point as above and below ; for, as I was saying just now, to speak of the whole which is in the form of a globe as having one part above and another below is not like a sensible man.
The reason why these names are used, and the circumstances under which they are ordinarily applied by us to the division of the heavens, may be elucidated by the following supposition : – if a person were to stand in that part of the universe which is the appointed place of fire, and where there is the great mass of fire to which fiery bodies gather – if, I say, he were to ascend thither, and, having the power to do this, were to abstract particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them, and then, raising the balance, were to draw the fire by force towards the uncongenial element of the air, it would be very evident that he could compel the smaller mass more readily than the larger ; for when two things are simultaneously raised by one and the same power, the smaller body must necessarily yield to the superior power with less reluctance than the larger ; and the larger body is called heavy and said to tend downwards, and the smaller body is called light and said to tend upwards. And we may detect ourselves who are upon the earth doing precisely the same thing. For we of separate earthy natures, and sometimes earth itself, and draw them into the uncongenial element of air by force and contrary to nature, both clinging to their kindred elements. But that which is smaller yields to the impulse given by us towards the dissimilar element more easily than the larger ; and so we call the former light, and the place towards which it is impelled we call above, and the contrary state and place we call heavy and below respectively. Now the relations of these must necessarily vary, because the principal masses of the different elements hold opposite positions ; for that which is light, heavy, below or above in one place will be found to be and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place.
Suppose that a man were to take his stand in that region of the Universe in which the substance of fire has its special abode, and where also that substance to which it flies is collected in largest bulk; and suppose that, having the power to do so, he were to separate portions of the fire and weigh them, putting them on scales and lifting the balance and pulling the fire by force into the dissimilar air, it is obvious that he will force the smaller mass more easily than the larger. [63c] For if two masses are lifted up simultaneously by a single effort, the smaller will necessarily yield more and the larger less, owing to its resistance, to the force exerted; and the large mass will be said to be “heavy” and moving “down,” the small light and moving “up.” Now this is just what we ought to detect ourselves doing in our region here. Standing on the earth and detaching various earthy substances, and sometimes pure earth, we pull them into the dissimilar air by force and against nature, since both these kinds cleave to their own kindred; [63d] and the smaller mass yields more easily, and follows first, as we force it into the dissimilar kind; wherefore we name it “light,” and the region to which we force it “above”; and the conditions opposite thereto we name “heavy” and “below.” Thus, these must necessarily differ in their mutual relations, because the main masses of the Kinds occupy regions opposite to one another; for when we compare what is light in one region with what is light in the opposite region, and the heavy with the heavy, the “below” with the below, [63e] and the” above with the above, we shall discover that these all become and are opposite and oblique and in every way different in their mutual relations. There is, however, this one fact to be noticed about them all, that it is the passage of each kind to its kindred mass which makes the moving body heavy, and the region to which such a body moves “below”; while the opposite conditions produce the contrary results.1 Let this, then, stand as our account of the causes of these conditions.]
Cornford [כאן זה יותר ברור]:
And about all of them this has to be considered : – that the tendency of each towards its kindred element makes the body which is moved heavy, and the place towards which the motion tends below, but things which have an opposite tendency we call by an opposite name. Such are the causes which we assign to these phenomena.
As to the smooth and the rough, any one who sees them can explain the reason of them to another. For roughness is hardness mingled with irregularity, and smoothness is produced by the joint effect of uniformity and density.
החושים. צער ועונג:
The most important of the affections which concern the whole body remains to be considered – that is, the cause of pleasure and pain in the perceptions of which I have been speaking, and in all other things which are perceived by sense through the parts of the body, and have both pains and pleasures attendant on them.
Let us imagine the causes of every affection, whether of sense or not, to be of the following nature, remembering that we have already distinguished between the nature which is easy and which is hard to move ; for this is the direction in which we must hunt the prey which we mean to take.
A body which is of a nature to be easily moved, on receiving an impression however slight, spreads abroad the motion in a circle, the parts communicating with each other, until at last, reaching the principle of mind, they announce the quality of the agent.
But a body of the opposite kind, being immobile, and not extending to the surrounding region, merely receives the impression, and does not stir any of the neighbouring parts ; and since the parts do not distribute the original impression to other parts, it has no effect of motion on the whole animal, and therefore produces no effect on the patient.
This is true of the bones and hair and other more earthy parts of the human body ; whereas what was said above relates mainly to sight and hearing, because they have in them the greatest amount of fire and air.
Now we must conceive of pleasure and pain in this way. An impression produced in us contrary to nature and violent, if sudden, is painful ; and, again, the sudden return to nature is pleasant ; but a gentle and gradual return is imperceptible and vice versa.
On the other hand the impression of sense which is most easily produced is most readily felt, but is not accompanied by pleasure or pain ; such, for example, are the affections of the sight, which, as we said above, is a body naturally uniting with our body in the day-time ; for cuttings and burnings and other affections which happen to the sight do not give pain, nor is there pleasure when the sight returns to its natural state ; but the sensations are dearest and strongest according to the manner in which the eye is affected by the object, and itself strikes and touches it ; there is no violence either in the contraction or dilation of the eye.
But bodies formed of larger particles yield to the agent only with a struggle ; and then they impart their motions to the whole and cause pleasure and pain – pain when alienated from their natural conditions, and pleasure when restored to them.
Things which experience gradual withdrawings and emptyings of their nature, and great and sudden replenishments, fail to perceive the emptying, but are sensible of the replenishment ; and so they occasion no pain, but the greatest pleasure, to the mortal part of the soul, as is manifest in the case of perfumes. But things which are changed all of a sudden, and only gradually and with difficulty return to their own nature, have effects in every way opposite to the former, as is evident in the case of burnings and cuttings of the body.
Thus have we discussed the general affections of the whole body, and the names of the agents which produce them. And now I will endeavour to speak of the affections of particular parts, and the causes and agents of them, as far as I am able.
In the first place let us set forth what was omitted when we were speaking of juices, concerning the affections peculiar to the tongue. These too, like most of the other affections, appear to be caused by certain contractions and dilations, but they have besides more of roughness and smoothness than is found in other affections ; for whenever earthy particles enter into the small veins which are the testing of the tongue, reaching to the heart, and fall upon the moist, delicate portions of flesh – when, as they are dissolved, they contract and dry up the little veins, they are astringent if they are rougher, but if not so rough, then only harsh.
Those of them which are of an abstergent nature, and purge the whole surface of the tongue, if they do it in excess, and so encroach as to consume some part of the flesh itself, like potash and soda, are all termed bitter. But the particles which are deficient in the alkaline quality, and which cleanse only moderately, are called salt, and having no bitterness or roughness, are regarded as rather agreeable than otherwise.
Bodies which share in and are made smooth by the heat of the mouth, and which are inflamed, and again in turn inflame that which heats them, and which are so light that they are carried upwards to the sensations of the head, and cut all that comes in their way, by reason of these qualities in them, are all termed pungent.
But when these same particles, refined by putrefaction, enter into the narrow veins, and are duly proportioned to the particles of earth and air which are there, they set them whirling about one another, and while they are in a whirl cause them to dash against and enter into one another, and so form hollows surrounding the particles that enter – which watery vessels of air (for a film of moisture, sometimes earthy, sometimes pure, is spread around the air) are hollow spheres of water ; and those of them which are pure, are transparent, and are called bubbles, while those composed of the earthy liquid, which is in a state of general agitation and effervescence, are said to boil or ferment – of all these affections the cause is termed acid.
And there is the opposite affection arising from an opposite cause, when the mass of entering particles, immersed in the moisture of the mouth, is congenial to the tongue, and smooths and oils over the roughness, and relaxes the parts which are unnaturally contracted, and contracts the parts which are relaxed, and disposes them all according to their nature – that sort of remedy of violent affections is pleasant and agreeable to every man, and has the name sweet. But enough of this.
The faculty of smell does not admit of differences of kind ; for all smells are of a half formed nature, and no element is so proportioned as to have any smell. The veins about the nose are too narrow to admit earth and water, and too wide to detain fire and air ; and for this reason no one ever perceives the smell of any of them ; but smells always proceed from bodies that are damp, or putrefying, or liquefying, or evaporating, and are perceptible only in the intermediate state, when water is changing into air and air into water ; and all of them are either vapor or mist. That which is passing out of air into water is mist, and that which is passing from water into air is vapour ; and hence all smells are thinner than water and thicker than air. The proof of this is, that when there is any obstruction to the respiration, and a man draws in his breath by force, then no smell filters through, but the air without the smell alone penetrates. Wherefore the varieties of smell have no name, and they have not many, or definite and simple kinds ; but they are distinguished only painful and pleasant, the one sort irritating and disturbing the whole cavity which is situated between the head and the navel [טבור], the other having a soothing influence, and restoring this same region to an agreeable and natural condition.
In considering the third kind of sense, hearing, we must speak of the causes in which it originates. We may in general assume sound to be a blow which passes through the ears, and is transmitted by means of the air, the brain, and the blood, to the soul, and that hearing is the vibration of this blow, which begins in the head and ends in the region of the liver. The sound which moves swiftly is acute, and the sound which moves slowly is grave, and that which is regular is equable and smooth, and the reverse is harsh. A great body of sound is loud, and a small body of sound the reverse. Respecting the harmonies of sound I must hereafter speak.
There is a fourth class of sensible things, having many intricate varieties, which must now be distinguished. They are called by the general name of colours, and are a flame which emanates from every sort of body, and has particles corresponding to the sense of sight. I have spoken already, in what has preceded, of the causes which generate sight, and in this place it will be natural and suitable to give a rational theory of colours.
Of the particles coming from other bodies which fall upon the sight, some are smaller and some are larger, and some are equal to the parts of the sight itself. Those which are equal are imperceptible, and we call them transparent. The larger produce contraction, the smaller dilation, in the sight, exercising a power akin to that of hot and cold bodies on the flesh, or of astringent bodies on the tongue, or of those heating bodies which we termed pungent. White and black are similar effects of contraction and dilation in another sphere, and for this reason have a different appearance. Wherefore, we ought to term white that which dilates the visual ray, and the opposite of this is black. There is also a swifter motion of a different sort of fire which strikes and dilates the ray of sight until it reaches the eyes, forcing a way through their passages and melting them, and eliciting from them a union of fire and water which we call tears, being itself an opposite fire which comes to them from an opposite direction – the inner fire flashes forth like lightning, and the outer finds a way in and is extinguished in the moisture, and all sorts of colours are generated by the mixture. This affection is termed dazzling, and the object which produces it is called bright and flashing. There is another sort of fire which is intermediate, and which reaches and mingles with the moisture of the eye without flashing ; and in this, the fire mingling with the ray of the moisture, produces a colour like blood, to which we give the name of red. A bright hue mingled with red and white gives the colour called auburn.
The law of proportion, however, according to which the several colours are formed, even if a man knew he would be foolish in telling, for he could not give any necessary reason, nor indeed any tolerable or probable explanation of them. Again, red, when mingled with black and white, becomes purple, but it becomes umber when the colours are burnt as well as mingled and the black is more thoroughly mixed with them.
[68b] which is midway between these1 reaches to the liquid of the eyes and is mingled therewith, it is not brilliant but, owing to the blending of the fire's ray through the moisture, it gives off a sanguine color, and we give it the name of “red.” And “bright” color when blended with red and white becomes “yellow.” But in what proportions the colors are blended it were foolish to declare, even if one knew, seeing that in such matters one could not properly adduce any necessary ground or probable reason. Red blended with black and white makes “purple”;]
Flame colour is produced by a union of auburn and dun, and dun by an admixture of black and white ; pale yellow, by an admixture of white and auburn. White and bright meeting, and falling upon a full black, become dark blue, and when dark blue mingles with white, a light blue colour is formed, as flame-colour with black makes leek green. There will be no difficulty in seeing how and by what mixtures the colours derived from these are made according to the rules of probability. He, however, who should attempt to verify all this by experiment, would forget the difference of the human and divine nature. For God only has the knowledge and also the power which are able to combine many things into one and again resolve the one into many. But no man either is or ever will be able to accomplish either the one or the other operation.
These are the elements, thus of necessity then subsisting, which the creator of the fairest and best of created things associated with himself, when he made the self-sufficing and most perfect God, using the necessary causes as his ministers in the accomplishment of his work, but himself contriving the good in all his creations. Wherefore we may distinguish two sorts of causes, the one divine and the other necessary, and may seek for the divine in all things, as far as our nature admits, with a view to the blessed life ; but the necessary kind only for the sake of the divine, considering that without them and when isolated from them, these higher things for which we look cannot be apprehended or received or in any way shared by us.
"[68e] Such, then, being the necessary nature of all these things, the Artificer of the most fair and good took them over at that time amongst things generated when He was engendering the self-sufficing and most perfect God; and their inherent properties he used as subservient causes, but Himself designed the Good in all that was being generated. Wherefore one ought to distinguish two kinds of causes,[Cf. 46 D, 48 A.] the necessary and the divine, and in all things to seek after the divine for the sake of gaining a life of blessedness, so far as our nature admits thereof, [69a] and to seek the necessary for the sake of the divine, reckoning that without the former it is impossible to discern by themselves alone the divine objects after which we strive, or to apprehend them or in any way partake thereof."
Seeing, then, that we have now prepared for our use the various classes of causes which are the material out of which the remainder of our discourse must be woven, just as wood is the material of the carpenter, let us revert in a few words to the point at which we began, and then endeavour to add on a suitable ending to the beginning of our tale.
As I said at first, when all things were in disorder God created in each thing in relation to itself, and in all things in relation to each other, all the measures and harmonies which they could possibly receive. For in those days nothing had any proportion [העומק הוא שצורת דבר, המהות שלו, תלויה ביחס קבוע של המרכיבים היסודיים שהם הספירות, המספרים היחסים המספריים וגבולי אלכסון] except by accident ; nor did any of the things which now have names deserve to be named at all – as, for example, fire, water, and the rest of the elements. All these the creator first set in order, and out of them he constructed the universe, which was a single animal comprehending in itself all other animals, mortal and immortal. [כלשון הפסוקים כגון ותוצא הארץ דשא עשב וכיו"ב. שהכל נכלל בארץ ואח"כ יצא ממנה]
Now of the divine, he himself was the creator, but the creation of the mortal he committed to his offspring. And they, imitating him, received from him the immortal principle of the soul ; and around this they proceeded to fashion a mortal body, and made it to be the vehicle of the so and constructed within the body a soul of another nature which was mortal, subject to terrible and irresistible affections – first of all, pleasure, the greatest incitement to evil ; then, pain, which deters from good ; also rashness and fear, two foolish counsellors, anger hard to be appeased, and hope easily led astray [מולך שולל] – these they mingled with irrational sense and with all-daring love according to necessary laws, and so framed man.
And He Himself acts as the Constructor of things divine, but the structure of the mortal things He commanded His own engendered sons to execute. And they, imitating Him, on receiving the immortal principle of soul, framed around it a mortal body, and gave it all the body to be its vehicle,and housed therein besides another form of soul, even the mortal form, [69d] which has within it passions both fearful and unavoidable—firstly, pleasure, a most mighty lure to evil; next, pains, which put good to rout; and besides these, rashness and fear, foolish counsellors both and anger, hard to dissuade; and hope, ready to seduce. And blending these with irrational sensation and with all-daring lust, they thus compounded in necessary fashion the mortal kind of soul.]
Wherefore, fearing to pollute the divine any more than was absolutely unavoidable, they gave to the mortal nature a separate habitation in another part of the body, placing the neck between them to be the isthmus and boundary, which they constructed between the head and breast, to keep them apart. And in the breast, and in what is termed the thorax, they encased the mortal soul ; and as the one part of this was superior and the other inferior they divided the cavity of the thorax into two parts, as the women's and men's apartments are divided in houses, and placed the midriff [סרעפת] to be a wall of partition between them. That part of the inferior soul which is endowed with courage and passion and loves contention they settled nearer the head, midway between the midriff and the neck, in order that it might be under the rule of reason and might join with it in controlling and restraining the desires when they are no longer willing of their own accord to obey the word of command issuing from the citadel.
That part of the soul, then, which partakes of courage and spirit, since it is a lover of victory, they planted more near to the head, between the midriff and the neck, in order that it might hearken to the reason, and, in conjunction therewith, might forcibly subdue the tribe of the desires whensoever they should utterly refuse to yield willing obedience to the word of command from the citadel of reason.]
The heart, the knot of the veins and the fountain of the blood which races through all the limbs was set in the place of guard, that when the might of passion was roused by reason making proclamation of any wrong assailing them from without or being perpetrated by the desires within, quickly the whole power of feeling in the body, perceiving these commands and threats, might obey and follow through every turn and alley, and thus allow the principle of the best to have the command in all of them.
And the heart, [70b] which is the junction of the veins and the fount of the blood which circulates vigorously through all the limbs, they appointed to be the chamber of the bodyguard, to the end that when the heat of the passion boils up, as soon as reason passes the word round that some unjust action is being done which affects them, either from without or possibly even from the interior desires, every organ of sense in the body might quickly perceive through all the channels both the injunctions and the threats and in all ways obey and follow them, thus allowing their best part [70c] to be the leader of them all.]
But the gods, foreknowing that the palpitation of the heart in the expectation of danger and the swelling and excitement of passion was caused by fire, formed and implanted as a supporter to the heart the lung, which was, in the first place, soft and bloodless, and also had within hollows like the pores of a sponge, in order that by receiving the breath and the drink, it might give coolness and the power of respiration and alleviate the heat. Wherefore they cut the air-channels leading to the lung, and placed the lung about the heart as a soft spring, that, when passion was rife within, the heart, beating against a yielding body, might be cooled and suffer less, and might thus become more ready to join with passion in the service of reason.
The part of the soul which desires meats and drinks and the other things of which it has need by reason of the bodily nature, they placed between the midriff and the boundary of the navel, contriving in all this region a sort of manger for the food of the body ; and there they bound it down like a wild animal which was chained up with man, and must be nourished if man was to exist. They appointed this lower creation his place here in order that he might be always feeding at the manger, and have his dwelling as far as might be from the council-chamber, making as little noise and disturbance as possible, and permitting the best part to advise quietly for the good of the whole.
And knowing that this lower principle in man would not comprehend reason, and even if attaining to some degree of perception would never naturally care for rational notions, but that it would be led away by phantoms and visions night and day – to be a remedy for this, God combined with it the liver, and placed it in the house of the lower nature, contriving that it should be solid and smooth, and bright and sweet, and should also have a bitter quality, in order that the power of thought, which proceeds from the mind, might be reflected as in a mirror which receives likenesses of objects and gives back images of them to the sight ; and so might strike terror into the desires, when, making use of the bitter part of the liver, to which it is akin, it comes threatening and invading, and diffusing this bitter element swiftly through the whole liver produces colours like bile, and contracting every part makes it wrinkled and rough ; and twisting out of its right place and contorting the lobe and closing and shutting up the vessels and gates, causes pain and loathing. And the converse happens when some gentle inspiration of the understanding pictures images of an opposite character, and allays the bile [מרה] and bitterness by refusing to stir or touch the nature opposed to itself, but by making use of the natural sweetness of the liver, corrects all things and makes them to be right and smooth and free, and renders the portion of the soul which resides about the liver happy and joyful, enabling it to pass the night in peace, and to practise divination in sleep, inasmuch as it has no share in mind and reason.
הכבד מקום לחזיונות נבואיים:
For the authors of our being, remembering the command of their father when he bade them create the human race as good as they could, that they might correct our inferior parts and make them to attain a measure of truth, placed in the liver the seat of divination. And herein is a proof that God has given the art of divination not to the wisdom, but to the foolishness of man. No man, when in his wits, attains prophetic truth and inspiration ; but when he receives the inspired word, either his intelligence is enthralled in sleep, or he is demented by some distemper or possession. And he who would understand what he remembers to have been said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic and inspired nature, or would determine by reason the meaning of the apparitions [התגלויות] which he has seen, and what indications they afford to this man or that, of past, present or future good and evil, must first recover his wits. But, while he continues demented, he cannot judge of the visions which he sees or the words which he utters ; the ancient saying is very true, that "only a man who has his wits can act or judge about himself and his own affairs" And for this reason it is customary to appoint interpreters to be judges of the true inspiration. Some persons call them prophets ; they are quite unaware that they are only the expositors of dark sayings and visions, and are not to be called prophets at all, but only interpreters of prophecy.
Such is the nature of the liver, which is placed as we have described in order that it may give prophetic intimations.
During the life of each individual these intimations are plainer, but after his death the liver becomes blind, and delivers oracles too obscure to be intelligible.
The neighbouring organ [the spleen] is situated on the left-hand side, and is constructed with a view of keeping the liver bright and pure like a napkin, always ready prepared and at hand to clean the mirror. And hence, when any impurities arise in the region of the liver by reason of disorders of the body, the loose nature of the spleen, which is composed of a hollow and bloodless tissue, receives them all and dears them away, and when filled with the unclean matter, swells and festers, but, again, when the body is purged, settles down into the same place as before, and is humbled.
Concerning the soul, as to which part is mortal and which divine, and how and why they are separated, and where located, if God acknowledges that we have spoken the truth, then, and then only, can we be confident ; still, we may venture to assert that what has been said by us is probable, and will be rendered more probable by investigation. Let us assume thus much.
The creation of the rest of follows next in order, and this we may investigate in a similar manner. And it appears to be very meet that the body should be framed on the following principles:
The authors of our race were aware that we should be intemperate in eating and drinking, and take a good deal more than was necessary or proper, by reason of gluttony. In order then that disease might not quickly destroy us, and lest our mortal race should perish without fulfilling its end – intending to provide against this, the gods made what is called the lower belly, to be a receptacle for the superfluous meat and drink, and formed the convolution of the bowels [פיתול המעיים], so that the food might be prevented from passing quickly through and compelling the body to require more food, thus producing insatiable gluttony, and making the whole race an enemy to philosophy and music, and rebellious against the divinest element within us.
The bones and flesh, and other similar parts of us, were made as follows. The first principle of all of them was the generation of the marrow [מח עצמות]. For the bonds of life which unite the soul with the body are made fast there, and they are the root and foundation of the human race. The marrow itself is created out of other materials : God took such of the primary triangles as were straight and smooth, and were adapted by their perfection to produce fire and water, and air and earth – these, I say, he separated from their kinds, and mingling them in due proportions with one another, made the marrow out of them to be a universal seed of the whole race of mankind ; and in this seed he then planted and enclosed the souls, and in the original distribution gave to the marrow as many and various forms as the different kinds of souls were hereafter to receive.
That which, like a field, was to receive the divine seed, he made round every way, and called that portion of the marrow, brain, intending that, when an animal was perfected, the vessel containing this substance should be the head ; but that which was intended to contain the remaining and mortal part of the soul he distributed into figures at once around and elongated, and he called them all by the name "marrow" ; and to these, as to anchors, fastening the bonds of the whole soul, he proceeded to fashion around them the entire framework of our body, constructing for the marrow, first of all a complete covering of bone.
He fashioned therefrom the marrow, devising it as a universal seed-stuff for every mortal kind. Next, He engendered therein the various kinds of Soul1and bound them down; and He straightway divided the marrow itself, in His original division, into shapes corresponding in their number and their nature to the number and the nature of the shapes which should belong to the several kinds of Soul. And that portion of the marrow which was intended to receive within itself, as it were into a field, the divine seed He molded [73d] in the shape of a perfect globe1 and bestowed on it the name of “brain,” purposing that, when each living creature should be completed, the vessel surrounding this should be called the “head.” ]
Bone was composed by him in the following manner. Having sifted pure and smooth earth he kneaded it and wetted it with marrow, and after that he put it into fire and then into water, and once more into fire and again into water – in this way by frequent transfers from one to the other he made it insoluble by either. Out of this he fashioned, as in a lathe, a globe made of bone, which he placed around the brain, and in this he left a narrow opening ; and around the marrow of the neck and back he formed vertebrae [חוליות] which he placed under one another like pivots, beginning at the head and extending through the whole of the trunk. Thus wishing to preserve the entire seed, he enclosed it in a stone-like casing, inserting joints, and using in the formation of them the power of the other or diverse as an intermediate nature, that they might have motion and flexure. Then again, considering that the bone would be too brittle and inflexible, and when heated and again cooled would soon mortify and destroy the seed within – having this in view, he contrived the sinews [גידים] and the flesh, that so binding all the members together by the sinews, which admitted of being stretched and relaxed about the vertebrae, he might thus make the body capable of flexion and extension, while the flesh would serve as a protection against the summer heat and against the winter cold, and also against falls, softly and easily yielding to external bodies, like articles made of felt ; and containing in itself a warm moisture which in summer exudes and makes the surface damp, would impart a nature coolness to the whole body ; and again in winter by the help of this internal warmth would form a very tolerable defence against the frost which surrounds it and attacks it from without. He who modelled us, considering these things, mixed earth with fire and water and blended them ; and making a ferment of acid and salt, he mingled it with them and formed soft and succulent flesh. As for the sinews, he made them of a mixture of bone and unfermented flesh, attempered so as to be in a mean, and gave them a yellow colour ; wherefore the sinews have a firmer and more glutinous nature than flesh, but a softer and moister nature than the bones. With these God covered the bones and marrow, binding them together by sinews, and then enshrouded them all in an upper covering of flesh. The more living and sensitive of the bones he enclosed in the thinnest film of flesh, and those which had the least life within them in the thickest and most solid flesh.
So again on the joints of the bones, where reason indicated that no more was required, he placed only a thin covering of flesh, that it might not interfere with the flexion of our bodies and make them unwieldy because difficult to move ; and also that it might not, by being crowded and pressed and matted together, destroy sensation by reason of its hardness, and impair the memory and dull the edge of intelligence. Wherefore also the thighs and the shanks and the hips, and the bones of the arms and the forearms, and other parts which have no joints, and the inner bones, which on account of the rarity of the soul in the marrow are destitute of reason – all these are abundantly provided with flesh ; but such as have mind in them are in general less fleshy, except where the creator has made some part solely of flesh in order to give sensation – as, for example, the tongue. But commonly this is not the case. For the nature which comes into being and grows up in us by a law of necessity, does not admit of the combination of solid bone and much flesh with acute perceptions. More than any other part the framework of the head would have had them, if they could have co-existed, and the human race, having a strong and fleshy and sinewy head, would have had a life twice or many times as long as it now has, and also more healthy and free from pain.
But our creators, considering whether they should make a longer-lived race which was worse, or a shorter-lived race which was better, came to the conclusion that every one ought to prefer a shorter span of life, which was better, to a longer one, which was worse ; and therefore they covered the head with thin bone, but not with flesh and sinews, since it had no joints ; and thus the head was added, having more wisdom and sensation than the rest of the body, but also being in every man far weaker.
"[74e] All the bones, then, that possessed most soul [i.e., those of the head and spine.] He enclosed in least flesh, but the bones which contained least soul with most and most dense flesh; moreover, at the junctions of the bones, except where reason revealed some necessity for its existence, He made but little flesh to grow, lest by hindering the flexions it should make the bodies unwieldy, because stiff in movement, or else through its size and density, when thickly massed together, it should produce insensitiveness, owing to its rigidity, and thereby cause the intellectual parts to be more forgetful and more obtuse. Wherefore [75a] the thighs and the shins and the region of the loins and the bones of the upper and lower arm, and all our other parts which are jointless, and all those bones which are void of intelligence within, owing to the small quantity of soul in the marrow—all these are abundantly supplied with flesh; but those parts which are intelligent are supplied less abundantly—except possibly where He so fashioned the flesh that it can of itself convey sensations, as is the case with the tongue; but most of these parts He made in the way described above. For the substance which is generated by necessity and grows up with us [75b] in no wise admits of quick perception coexisting with dense bone and abundant flesh. For if these characteristics were willing to consort together, then the structure of the head would have acquired them most of all, and mankind, crowned with a head that was fleshy and sinewy and strong, would have enjoyed a life that was twice (nay, many times) as long as our present life, and healthier, to boot, and more free from pain. But as it is, when the Constructors of our being were cogitating [75c] whether they should make a kind that was more long-lived and worse or more short-lived and better, they agreed that the shorter and superior life should by all means be chosen by all rather than the longer and inferior. Wherefore they covered the head closely with thin bone, but not with flesh and sinews, since it was also without flexions. For all these reasons, then, the head that was joined to the body in every man was more perceptive and more intelligent but less strong."]
For these reasons and after this manner God placed the sinews at the extremity of the head, in a circle round the neck, and glued them together by the principle of likeness and fastened the extremities of the jawbones to them below the face, and the other sinews he dispersed throughout the body, fastening limb to limb. The framers of us framed the mouth, as now arranged, having teeth and tongue and lips, with a view to the necessary and the good, contriving the way in for necessary purposes, the way out for the best purposes ; for that is necessary which enters in and gives food to the body ; but the river of speech, which flows out of a man and ministers to the intelligence, is the fairest and noblest of all streams. Still the head could neither be left a bare frame of bones, on account of the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons, nor yet be allowed to be wholly covered, and so become dull and senseless by reason of an overgrowth of flesh. The fleshy nature was not therefore wholly dried up, but a large sort of peel was parted off and remained over, which is now called the skin. This met and grew by the help of the cerebral moisture, and became the circular envelopment of the head. And the moisture, rising up under the sutures [תפרי עצמות הגולגולת], watered and closed in the skin upon the crown, forming a sort of knot.
The diversity of the sutures was caused by the power of the courses of the soul and of the food, and the more these struggled against one another the more numerous they became, and fewer if the struggle were less violent.
המדע המודרני לא מתייחס לחלק של הנפש ביצירת התנועה. הוא מראה שיש שרשרת סיבתית של תנועות חשמליות וכימיות במוח שעוברות לעצבים ומשם לשרירים וגורמות לתנועה. אם נשאל הרי התנועה נוצרת מסיבות של מחשבה שמחליטה, התשובה תהיה שהנפש היא זו שמתחילה את התהליך הסיבתי, כעין "סיבה ראשונה" במובן האריסטוטלי.
למדע המודרני נוח לראות זאת כמו שהנפש מפילה את אבן הדומינו הראשונה ומשם הכל מתנהל מכח הסיבות החשמליות והכימיות. ככל שיש פחות "נפש" בתהליכים שהוא חוקר כך נוח לו יותר.
בגוף שמת לפני זמן קצר, אם מפעילים במוח זרם חשמלי בעוצמה שאינה גבוהה יותר ממה שפועל בו כשהוא חי, האם אפשר לגרום בזה לתנועת שרירים?
גם אם אפשר, אולי זה משום שהנפש עדיין לא סיימה לעזוב את הגוף על כל רבדיה. אפשר גם שעצם העובדה שאחרי זמן מה הגוף כבר לא ינוע מכח שום דבר, הוא משום שלפחות כדי לשמור על מערכת התנועה צריך כל הזמן את נוכחות הנפש, גם אם חשמל יכול ליצור תנועה ללא השתתפות הנפש.
כוונתי שאפשר שהנפש פועלת לא רק בהפלת אבן הדומינו הראשונה בשלשלת הסיבות אלא היא פועלת על כל שלב של שלשלת הסיבות, ושלשלת הסיבות אין לה שום יכולת לפעול לבד אלא כולה מתחילתה עד סופה מונעת על ידי הנפש. אם זה כך אין טעם לומר שהנפש מניעה את השרירים והם מניעים את האיברים, אלא הנפש מניעה ישר את האיברים ובמקביל היא גם מניעה את השרירים ואת מה שקורה בעצבים ובתהליכים הכימיים וכו'. ובעצם הסיבה לתנועת הבשר היא הנפש באופן ישיר. אם לפי המדע המודרני הנפש יכולה להפיל את אבן הדומינו הראשונה ולהתחיל את התהליך של חשמל ותנועות כימיות וכו', באותה מידה ממש היא יכולה להניע את הבשר עצמו ישירות. אין שום הבדל בין זה לזה.
אם אנשים מתאהבים או מתחבקים וכיו"ב, יש הורמונים שמופרשים מזה וגורמים לתחושה נעימה ולאמהות מיניקות גורמים הפרשת חלב וכיו"ב. שם רוב האנשים נוטים לפרש שהאהבה לתינוק היא זו שגורמת להפרשת החלב, או האהבה לבן הזוג והמגע איתו הם שגורמים לתחושה הנעימה, ולא שהאהבה גורמת רק להפרשת הורמונים ותו לא, וההורמונים הם אלה שבדרך כימית מפעילים מנגנוגים כימיים שגורמים להרגשה טובה או הפרשת חלב כמו פעולת תרופות כימיות פסכיאטריות. הנושא הזה מאוד לא ברור. הרי באמת יש חומרים כימיים שמפעילים תחושות נפשיות בלי שום סיבה נפשית, וכגון אלכוהול ותרופות פסיכיאטריות וכיו"ב. וקשה לנו לומר שמאורעות כמו אהבה ואבל רק גורמים להפרשת חומרים כאלה ותו לא, ומה שמרגישים בנפש ובגוף הוא כתוצאה מהחומרים ולא תוצאה ישירה בלתי אמצעית של המאורע הנפשי.
הנושא אינו ברור וייתכן שיש כמה דרכים מקבילות שניתן להסתכל בהן עליו ואולי אין הכרעה חד משמעית ביניהן.
הנושא של החקירה הפילוסופית אינו זהה לחקירה המדעית. לפי דברי אפלטון כאן הפילוסוף מתבונן בפרטים של מבנה הגוף וסיבותיו החומריות ששייכות ל"הכרח" ולטבע החומרי, כדי להגיע לעיון שכלי. העיון השכלי פירושו כמו שהארכתי ברשימות 10 ו 11 הוא להגיע לראייה של הפרטים כאיברים בכללי. החוקים, התכליתיות, הסיבות הרוחניות והאלוהיות, היופי, הסדר, השכל שבדברים במובן הגבוה יותר של שכל, מראים איך הפרטים מאוחדים במערכת גבוהה יותר וההשגה שלה מביאה לאושר שהוא תכליתו של הפילוסוף. לצורך כך אין הכרח, ולפעמים מפריע, להכנס יותר מדי לפרטי פרטים, שאת המדען יכולים לעניין מאוד. הפילוסוף אסור לו להתמחות בתחום אחד יותר מבתחומים האחרים. כדי לראות את האלוהי עליו לראות את הארצי כמכלול שלם. אם האלוהי רצה להתגלות לאדם על ידי הבריאה, הוא אינו רוצה שהאדם יתעמק בפרטי פרטים של מערכות ביוכימיות מורכבות, או כל תחום מדעי מודרני אחר, כי זה בהכרח ימנע ממנו מבט כללי על הבריאה. זה מוציא את המדע במובן המודרני ממערכת העיסוקים הפילוסופיים-דתיים והופך אותו למלאכת חולין שהצדקתה היא רק תועלתית.
עוד קטעים בעניין דומה מ Cornford:
This skin the divine power pierced all round with fire, and out of the punctures which were thus made the moisture issued forth, and the liquid and heat which was pure came away, and a mixed part which was composed of the same material as the skin, and had a fineness equal to the punctures, was borne up by its own impulse and extended far outside the head, but being too slow to escape, was thrust back by the external air, and rolled up underneath the skin, where it took root. Thus the hair sprang up in the skin, being akin to it because it is like threads of leather, but rendered harder and closer through the pressure of the cold, by which each hair, while in process of separation from the skin, is compressed and cooled.
Wherefore the creator [כאן לא כתב האלים. Lamb: "our Maker"] formed the head hairy, making use of the causes which I have mentioned, and reflecting also that instead of flesh the brain needed the hair to be a light covering or guard, which would give shade in summer and shelter in winter, and at the same time would not impede our quickness of perception.
From the combination of sinew, skin, and bone, in the structure of the finger, there arises a triple compound, which, when dried up, takes the form of one hard skin partaking of all three natures, and was fabricated by these second causes, but designed by mind which is the principal cause with an eye to the future. For our creators well knew that women and other animals would some day be framed out of men, and they further knew that many animals would require the use of nails for many purposes ; wherefore they fashioned in men at their first creation the rudiments of nails. For this purpose and for these reasons they caused skin, hair, and nails to grow at the extremities of the limbs.
And now that all the parts and members of the mortal animal had come together, since its life of necessity consisted of fire and breath, and it therefore wasted away by dissolution and depletion [דלדול], the gods contrived the following remedy : They mingled a nature akin to that of man with other forms and perceptions, and thus created another kind of animals would some day be framed out of men, and they further knew that many animals would require the use of nails for many purposes ; wherefore they fashioned in men at their first creation the rudiments of nails.
For this purpose and for these reasons they caused skin, hair, and nails to grow at the extremities of the limbs. And now that all the parts and members of the mortal animal had come together, since its life of necessity consisted of fire and breath, and it therefore wasted away by dissolution and depletion, the gods contrived the following remedy : They mingled a nature akin to that of man with other forms and perceptions, and thus created another kind of animal. These are the trees and plants and seeds which have been improved by cultivation and are now domesticated among us ; anciently there were only the will kinds, which are older than the cultivated. For everything that partakes of life may be truly called a living being, and the animal of which we are now speaking partakes of the third kind of soul, which is said to be seated between the midriff and the navel, having no part in opinion or reason or mind, but only in feelings of pleasure and pain and the desires which accompany them. For this nature is always in a passive state, revolving in and about itself, repelling the motion from without and using its own, and accordingly is not endowed by nature with the power of observing or reflecting on its own concerns. Wherefore it lives and does not differ from a living being, but is fixed and rooted in the same spot, having no power of self-motion.
Now after the superior powers had created all these natures to be food for us who are of the inferior nature, they cut various channels through the body as through a garden, that it might be watered as from a running stream. In the first place, they cut two hidden channels or veins down the back where the skin and the flesh join, which answered severally to the right and left side of the body. These they let down along the backbone, so as to have the marrow of generation between them, where it was most likely to flourish, and in order that the stream coming down from above might flow freely to the other parts, and equalise the irrigation.
In the next place, they divided the veins about the head, and interlacing them, they sent them in opposite directions ; those coming from the right side they sent to the left of the body, and those from the left they diverted towards the right, so that they and the skin might together form a bond which should fasten the head to the body, since the crown of the head was not encircled by sinews ; and also in order that the sensations from both sides might be distributed over the whole body.
And next, they ordered the water-courses of the body in a manner which I will describe, and which will be more easily understood if we begin by admitting that all things which have lesser parts retain the greater, but the greater cannot retain the lesser. Now of all natures fire has the smallest parts, and therefore penetrates through earth and water and air and their compounds, nor can anything hold it. And a similar principle applies to the human belly ; for when meats and drinks enter it, it holds them, but it cannot hold air and fire, because the particles of which they consist are smaller than its own structure.
These elements, therefore, God [הוא לא כותב כאן האלים] employed for the sake of distributing moisture from the belly into the veins, weaving together network of fire and air like a weel, having at the entrance two lesser weels ; further he constructed one of these with two openings, and from the lesser weels he extended cords reaching all round to the extremities of the network. All the interior of the net he made of fire, but the lesser weels and their cavity, of air. The network he took and spread over the newly-formed animal in the following manner : He let the lesser weels pass into the mouth ; there were two of them, and one he let down by the air-pipes into the lungs, the other by the side of the air-pipes into the belly. The former he divided into two branches, both of which he made to meet at the channels of the nose, so that when the way through the mouth did not act, the streams of the mouth as well were replenished through the nose. With the other cavity (i.e. of the greater weel) he enveloped the hollow parts of the body, and at one time he made all this to flow into the lesser weels, quite gently, for they are composed of air, and at another time he caused the lesser weels to flow back again ; and the net he made to find a way in and out through the pores of the body, and the rays of fire which are bound fast within followed the passage of the air either way, never at any time ceasing so long as the mortal being holds together. This process, as we affirm, the name-giver named inspiration and expiration.
And to this kind of process the Giver of Titles2 gave, as we say, the names of “inspiration” and “expiration.”
2 A mythical figure, like Adam in Gen. 11. 19-20; Cf. Cratyl. 438-439.]
And all this movement, active as well as passive, takes place in order that the body, being watered and cooled, may receive nourishment and life ; for when the respiration is going in and out, and the fire, which is fast bound within, follows it, and ever and anon moving to and fro, enters through the belly and reaches the meat and drink, it dissolves them, and dividing them into small portions and guiding them through the passages where it goes, pumps them as from a fountain into the channels of the veins, and makes the stream of the veins flow through the body as through a conduit.
Let us once more consider the phenomena of respiration, and enquire into the causes which have made it what it is. They are as follows: Seeing that there is no such thing as a vacuum into which any of those things which are moved can enter, and the breath is carried from us into the external air, the next point is, as will be dear to every one, that it does not go into a vacant space, but pushes its neighbour out of its place, and that which is thrust out in turn drives out its neighbour ; and in this everything of necessity at last comes round to that place from whence the breath came forth, and enters in there, and following the breath, fills up the vacant space ; and this goes on like the rotation of a wheel, because there can be no such thing as a vacuum. Wherefore also the breast and the lungs, when they emit the breath, are replenished by the air which surrounds the body and which enters in through the pores of the flesh and is driven round in a circle ; and again, the air which is sent away and passes out through the body forces the breath inwards through the passage of the mouth and the nostrils. Now the origin of this movement may be supposed to be as follows. In the interior of every animal the hottest part is that which is around the blood and veins ; it is in a manner on internal fountain of fire, which we compare to the network of a creel, being woven all of fire and extended through the centre of the body, while the outer parts are composed of air.
Now we must admit that heat naturally proceeds outward to its own place and to its kindred element ; and as there are two exits for the heat, the out through the body, and the other through the mouth and nostrils, when it moves towards the one, it drives round the air at the other, and that which is driven round falls into the fire and becomes warm, and that which goes forth is cooled. But when the heat changes its place, and the particles at the other exit grow warmer, the hotter air inclining in that direction and carried towards its native element, fire, pushes round the air at the other ; and this being affected in the same way and communicating the same impulse, a circular motion swaying to and from is produced by the double process, which we call inspiration and expiration.
[ב Cornford מעמ' 306 והלאה יש ביאור ארוך ובהיר על דברי אפלטון בכל העניין שהתבאר בפסקאות לעיל.
קטע קצר מדבריו:
The phenomena of medical cupping-glasses and of the swallowing of drink and of the projection of bodies, whether discharged in the air or bowled along the ground, are to be investigated on a similar principle ; and swift and slow sounds, which appear to be high and low, and are sometimes discordant on account of their inequality, and then again harmonical on account of the equality of the motion which they excite in us. For when the motions of the antecedent swifter sounds begin to pause and the two are equalised, the slower sounds overtake the swifter and then propel them. When they overtake them they do not intrude a new and discordant motion, but introduce the beginnings of a slower, which answers to the swifter as it dies away, thus producing a single mixed expression out of high and low, whence arises a pleasure which even the unwise feel, and which to the wise becomes a higher sort of delight, being an imitation of divine harmony in mortal motions.
[ב Cornford כאן יש ביאור ארוך ובהיר בעניין הצלילים]
Moreover, as to the flowing of water, the fall of the thunderbolt, and the marvels that are observed about the attraction of amber and the Heraclean stones, in none of these cases is there any attraction ; but he who investigates rightly, will find that such wonderful phenomena are attributable to the combination of certain conditions – the non-existence of a vacuum, the fact that objects push one another round, and that they change places, passing severally into their proper positions as they are divided or combined.
Such as we have seen, is the nature and such are the causes of respiration – the subject in which this discussion originated. For the fire cuts the food and following the breath surges up within, fire and breath rising together and filling the veins by drawing up out of the belly and pouring into them the cut portions of the food ; and so the streams of food are kept flowing through the whole body in all animals.
And fresh cuttings from kindred substances, whether the fruits of the earth or herb of the field, which God planted to be our daily food, acquire all sorts of colours by their inter-mixture ; but red is the most pervading of them, being created by the cutting action of fire and by the impression which it makes on a moist substance ; and hence the liquid which circulates in the body has a colour such as we have described. The liquid itself we call blood, which nourishes the flesh and the whole body, whence all parts are watered and empty places filled.
Now the process of repletion and evacuation is effected after the manner of the universal motion by which all kindred substances are drawn towards one another. For the external elements which surround us are always causing us to consume away, and distributing and sending off like to like ; the particles of blood, too, which are divided and contained within the frame of the animal as in a sort of heaven, are compelled to imitate the motion of the universe. Each, therefore, of the divided parts within us, being carried to its kindred nature, replenishes the void. When more is taken away than flows in, then we decay, and when less, we grow and increase.
"And the processes of filling and evacuating take place just as the motion of everything in the Universe takes place, namely, according to the law that every kindred substance moves towards its kind. For the bodies which surround us without are always dissolving us and sending off and distributing to each species of substance what is akin thereto; while the blood-particles, again, being minced up within us and surrounded by the structure of each creature as by a Heaven, are compelled to copy the motion of the whole; [81b] hence, when each of the particles that are divided up inside moves towards its kin, it fills up again the emptied place. And when what passes out is more than the inflow every creature decays, but when less, it increases."]
The frame of the entire creature when young has the triangles of each kind new, and may be compared to the keel of a vessel [שדר של כלי שיט] which is just off the stocks ; they are locked firmly together and yet the whole mass is soft and delicate, being freshly formed of marrow and nurtured on milk. Now when the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the triangles already there, the frame of the body gets the better of them and its newer triangles cut them up, and so the animal grows great, being nourished by a multitude of similar particles.
But when the roots of the triangles are loosened by having undergone many conflicts with many things in the course of time, they are no longer able to cut or assimilate the food which enters, but are themselves easily divided by the bodies which come in from without. In this way every animal is overcome and decays, and this affection is called old age.
And at last, when the bonds by which the triangles of the marrow are united no longer hold, and are parted by the strain of existence, they in turn loosen the bonds of the soul, and she, obtaining a natural release, flies away with joy. For that which takes place according to nature is pleasant, but that which is contrary to nature is painful. And thus death, if caused by disease or produced by wounds, is painful and violent ; but that sort of death which comes with old age and fulfils the debt of nature is the easiest of deaths, and is accompanied with pleasure rather than with pain.
Now every one can see whence diseases arise. There are four natures out of which the body is compacted, earth and fire and water and air, and the unnatural excess or defect of these, or the change of any of them from its own natural place into another, or – since there are more kinds than one of fire and of the other elements – the assumption by any of these of a wrong kind, or any similar irregularity, produces disorders and diseases ; for when any of them is produced or changed in a manner contrary to nature, the parts which were previously cool grow warm, and those which were dry become moist, and the light become heavy, and the heavy light ; all sorts of changes occur. For, as we affirm, a thing can only remain the same with itself, whole and sound, when the same is added to it, or subtracted from it, in the same respect and in the same manner and in due proportion ; and whatever comes or goes away in violation of these laws causes all manner of changes and infinite diseases and corruptions.
Now there is a second class of structures which are also natural, and this affords a second opportunity of observing diseases to him who would understand them.
Again, in the structures which are naturally secondary1 in order of construction, there is a second class of diseases to be noted by him who has a mind to take cognizance of them.]
For whereas marrow and bone and flesh and sinews are composed of the four elements, and the blood, though after another manner, is likewise formed out of them, most diseases originate in the way which I have described ; but the worst of all owe their severity to the fact that the generation of these substances stances in a wrong order ; they are then destroyed. For the natural order is that the flesh and sinews should be made of blood, the sinews out of the fibres to which they are akin, and the flesh out of the dots which are formed when the fibres are separated. And the glutinous and rich matter which comes away from the sinews and the flesh, not only glues the flesh to the bones, but nourishes and imparts growth to the bone which surrounds the marrow ; and by reason of the solidity of the bones, that which filters through consists of the purest and smoothest and oiliest sort of triangles, dropping like dew from the bones and watering the marrow.
Now when each process takes place in this order, health commonly results ; when in the opposite order, disease. For when the flesh becomes decomposed and sends back the wasting substance into the veins, then an over-supply of blood of diverse kinds, mingling with air in the veins, having variegated colours and bitter properties, as well as acid and saline qualities, contains all sorts of bile and serum and phlegm [לֵחָה]. For all things go the wrong way, and having become corrupted, first they taint the blood itself, and then ceasing to give nourishment the body they are carried along the veins in all directions, no longer preserving the order of their natural courses, but at war with themselves, because they receive no good from one another, and are hostile to the abiding constitution of the body, which they corrupt and dissolve. The oldest part of the flesh which is corrupted, being hard to decompose, from long burning grows black, and from being everywhere corroded becomes bitter, and is injurious to every part of the body which is still uncorrupted. Sometimes, when the bitter element is refined away, the black part assumes an acidity which takes the place of the bitterness ; at other times the bitterness being tinged with blood has a redder colour ; and this, when mixed with black, takes the hue of grass ; and again, an auburn colour mingles with the bitter matter when new flesh is decomposed by the fire which surrounds the internal flame – to all which symptoms some physician perhaps, or rather some philosopher, who had the power of seeing in many dissimilar things one nature deserving of a name, has assigned the common name of bile [מרה].
But the other kinds of bile are variously distinguished by their colours. As for serum, that sort which is the watery part of blood is innocent, but that which is a secretion of black and acid bile is malignant when mingled by the power of heat with any salt substance, and is then called acid phlegm [לֵחָה]. Again, the substance which is formed by the liquefaction of new and tender flesh when air is present, if inflated and encased in liquid so as to form bubbles, which separately are invisible owing to their small size, but when collected are of a bulk which is visible, and have a white colour arising out of the generation of foam – all this decomposition of tender flesh when inter-mingled with air is termed by us white phlegm. And the whey or sediment of newly-formed phlegm is sweat and tears, and includes the various daily discharges by which the body is purified.
Now all these become causes of disease when the blood is not replenished in a natural manner by food and drink but gains bulk from opposite sources in violation of the laws of nature. When the several parts of the flesh are separated by disease, if the foundation remains, the power of the disorder is only half as great, and there is still a prospect of an easy recovery ; but when that which binds the flesh to the bones is diseased, and no longer being separated from the muscles and sinews, ceases to give nourishment to the bone and to unite flesh and bone, and from being oily and smooth and glutinous becomes rough and salt and dry, owing to bad regimen, then all the substance thus corrupted crumbles away under the flesh and the sinews, and separates from the bone, and the fleshy parts fall away from their foundation and leave the sinews bare and full of brine, and the flesh again gets into the circulation of the blood and makes the previously-mentioned disorders still greater.
but whenever the substance which binds the flesh to the bones1 becomes diseased and no longer separates itself at once from them and from the sinews, so as to provide food for the bone and to serve as a bond between flesh and bone, but becomes rough and saline instead of being oily and smooth and viscid, owing to its being starved by a bad regimen,—then, every such substance, as it undergoes these affections, molders away beneath the flesh and the sinews [84b] and withdraws from the bones; while the flesh falls away with it from the roots and leaves the sinews bare and full of saline matter, and by falling back itself into the stream of the blood it augments the maladies previously described.]
And if these bodily affections be severe, still worse are the prior disorders ; as when the bone itself, by reason of the density of the flesh, does not obtain sufficient air, but becomes mouldy and hot and gangrened and receives no nutriment, and the natural process is inverted, and the bone crumbling passes into the food, and the food into the flesh, and the flesh again falling into the blood makes all maladies that may occur more virulent than those already mentioned. But the worst case of all is when the marrow is diseased, either from excess or defect ; and this is the cause of the very greatest and most fatal disorders, in which the whole course of the body is reversed.
But although these bodily ailments are severe, still more grave are those which precede them, whenever the bone by reason of the density of the flesh fails to receive sufficient inspiration, and becoming heated because of its moldiness decays and does not admit its nutriment, but, on the contrary, falls back itself, [84c] as it crumbles, into its nutriment which then passes into flesh, and this flesh falling into, the blood causes all such maladies to be more violent than those previously described. And the most extreme case of all occurs whenever the substance of the marrow becomes diseased either from deficiency or from excess; for this results in the gravest of diseases and the most potent in causing death, inasmuch as the whole substance of the body, by the force of necessity, streams in the reverse direction.]
There is a third class of diseases which may be conceived of as arising in three ways ; for they are produced sometimes by wind, and sometimes by phlegm, and sometimes by bile. When the lung, which is the dispenser of the air to the body, is obstructed by rheums [שגרון] and its passages are not free, some of them not acting, while through others too much air enters, then the parts which are unrefreshed by air corrode, while in other parts the excess of air forcing its way through the veins distorts them and decomposing the body is enclosed in the midst of it and occupies the midriff thus numberless painful diseases are produced, accompanied by copious [שופע] sweats. And oftentimes when the flesh is dissolved in the body, wind, generated within and unable to escape, is the source of quite as much pain as the air coming in from without ; but the greatest pain is felt when the wind gets about the sinews and the veins of the shoulders, and swells them up, so twists back the great tendons [גידים] and the sinews which are connected with them. These disorders are called tetanus and opisthotonus, by reason of the tension which accompanies them. The cure of them is difficult ; relief is in most cases given by fever supervening. The white phlegm, though dangerous when detained within by reason of the air-bubbles, yet if it can communicate with the outside air, is less severe, and only discolours the body, generating leprous eruptions and similar diseases. When it is mingled with black bile and dispersed about the courses of the head, which are the divinest part of us, the attack if coming on in sleep, is not so severe ; but when assailing those who are awake it is hard to be got rid of, and being an affection of a sacred part, is most justly called sacred. An acid and salt phlegm, again, is the source of all those diseases which take the form of catarrh, but they have many names because the places into which they flow are manifold.
Inflammations of the body come from burnings and inflamings, and all of them originate in bile. When bile finds a means of discharge, it boils up and sends forth all sorts of tumours ; but when imprisoned within, it generates many inflammatory diseases, above all when mingled with pure blood ; since it then displaces the fibres which are scattered about in the blood and are designed to maintain the balance of rare and dense, in order that the blood may not be so liquefied by heat as to exude from the pores of the body, nor again become too dense and thus find a difficulty in circulating through the veins. The fibres are so constituted as to maintain this balance ; and if any one brings them all together when the blood is dead and in process of cooling, then the blood which remains becomes fluid, but if they are left alone, they soon congeal by reason of the surrounding cold. The fibres having this power over the blood, bile, which is only stale blood, and which from being flesh is dissolved again into blood, at the first influx coming in little by little, hot and liquid, is congealed by the power of the fibres ; and so congealing and made to cool, it produces internal cold and shuddering. When it enters with more of a flood and overcomes the fibres by its heat, and boiling up throws them into disorder, if it have power enough to maintain its supremacy, it penetrates the marrow and burns up what may be termed the cables of the soul, and sets her free ; but when there is not so much of it, and the body though wasted still holds out, the bile is itself mastered, and is either utterly banished, or is thrust through the veins into the lower or upper-belly, and is driven out of the body like an exile from a state in which there has been civil war ; whence arise diarrhoeas and dysenteries, and all such disorders. When the constitution is disordered by excess of fire, continuous heat and fever are the result ; when excess of air is the cause, then the fever is quotidian ; when of water, which is a more sluggish element than either fire or air, then the fever is a tertian ; when of earth, which is the most sluggish of the four, and is only purged away in a four-fold period, the result is a quartan fever, which can with difficulty be shaken off.
Such is the manner in which diseases of the body arise ; the disorders of the soul, which depend upon the body, originate as follows. We must acknowledge disease of the mind to be a want of intelligence ; and of this there are two kinds ; to wit, madness and ignorance. In whatever state a man experiences either of them, that state may be called disease ; and excessive pains and pleasures are justly to be regarded as the greatest diseases to which the soul is liable. For a man who is in great joy or in great pain, in his unseasonable eagerness to attain the one and to avoid the other, is not able to see or to hear anything rightly ; but he is mad, and is at the time utterly incapable of any participation in reason.
He who has the seed about the spinal marrow too plentiful and overflowing, like a tree overladen with fruit, has many throes [כאבים עזים], and also obtains many pleasures in his desires and their offspring, and is for the most part of his life deranged, because his pleasures and pains are so very great ; his soul is rendered foolish and disordered by his body ; yet he is regarded not as one diseased, but as one who is voluntarily bad, which is a mistake. The truth is that the intemperance of love is a disease of the soul due chiefly to the moisture and fluidity which is produced in one of the elements by the loose consistency of the bones. And in general, all that which is termed the incontinence of pleasure and is deemed a reproach under the idea that the wicked voluntarily do wrong is not justly a matter for reproach. For no man is voluntarily bad ; but the bad become bad by reason of an ill disposition of the body and bad education, things which are hateful to every man and happen to him against his will.
And whenever a man's seed grows to abundant volume in his marrow,3 as it were a tree that is overladen beyond measure with fruit, he brings on himself time after time many pangs and many pleasures owing to his desires and the issue thereof, and comes to be in a state of madness [86d] for the most part of his life because of those greatest of pleasures and pains, and keeps his soul diseased and senseless by reason of the action of his body. Yet such a man is reputed to be voluntarily wicked and not diseased; although, in truth, this sexual incontinence, which is due for the most part to the abundance and fluidity of one substance because of the porosity of the bones, constitutes a disease of the soul. ]
And in the case of pain too in like manner the soul suffers much evil from the body. For where the acid and briny phlegm and other bitter and bilious humours wander about in the body, and find no exit or escape, but are pent up within and mingle their own vapours with the motions of the soul, and are blended, with them, they produce all sorts of diseases, more or fewer, and in every degree of intensity ; and being carried to the three places of the soul, whichever they may severally assail, they create infinite varieties of ill-temper and melancholy, of rashness and cowardice, and also of forgetfulness and stupidity.
"and as these humors penetrate to the three regions1 of the Soul, according to the region which they severally attack, they give rise to all varieties of bad temper and bad spirits, and they give rise to all manner of rashness and cowardice, and of forgetfulness also, as well as of stupidity."]
Further, when to this evil constitution of body evil forms of government are added and evil discourses are uttered in private as well as in public, and no sort of instruction is given in youth to cure these evils, then all of us who are bad become bad from two causes which are entirely beyond our control. In such cases the planters are to blame rather than the plants, the educators rather than the educated. But however that may be, we should endeavour as far as we can by education, and studies, and learning, to avoid vice and attain virtue ; this, however, is part of another subject.
There is a corresponding enquiry concerning the mode of treatment by which the mind and the body are to be preserved, about which it is meet and right that I should say a word in turn ; for it is more our duty to speak of the good than of the evil.
Everything that is good is fair [Cornford: beautiful], and the animal fair is not without proportion, and the animal which is to be fair must have due proportion. Now we perceive lesser symmetries or proportions and reason about them, but of the highest and greatest we take no heed ; for there is no proportion or disproportion more productive of health and disease, and virtue and vice, than that between soul and body. This however we do not perceive, nor do we reflect that when a weak or small frame is the vehicle of a great and mighty soul, or conversely, when a little soul is encased in a large body, then the whole animal is not fair, for it lacks the most important of all symmetries ; but the due proportion of mind and body is the fairest and loveliest of all sights to him who has the seeing eye.
Just as a body which has a leg too long, or which is unsymmetrical in some other respect, is an unpleasant sight, and also, when doing its share of work, is much distressed and makes convulsive efforts, and often stumbles through awkwardness, and is the cause of infinite evil to its own self – in like manner we should conceive of the double nature which we call the living being ; and when in this compound there is an impassioned soul more powerful than the body, that soul, I say, convulses and fills with disorders the whole inner nature of man ; and when eager in the pursuit of some sort of learning or study, causes wasting ; or again, when teaching or disputing in private or in public, and strifes and controversies arise, inflames and dissolves the composite frame of man and introduces rheums ; and the nature of this phenomenon is not understood by most professors of medicine, who ascribe it to the opposite of the real cause.
A body, for example, which is too long in the legs, or otherwise disproportioned owing to some excess, is not only ugly, but, when joint effort is required, it is also the source of much fatigue and many sprains and falls by reason of its clumsy motion, whereby it causes itself countless evils. So likewise we must conceive of that compound of soul and body which we call the “living creature.” Whenever the soul within it is stronger than the body [88a] and is in a very passionate state, it shakes up the whole body from within and fills it with maladies; and whenever the soul ardently [בלהט] pursues some study or investigation, it wastes the body; and again, when the soul engages, in public or in private, in teachings and battles of words carried on with controversy and contention, it makes the body inflamed and shakes it to pieces, and induces catarrhs; and thereby it deceives the majority of so-called physicians and makes them ascribe the malady to the wrong cause.]
And once more, when body large and too strong for the soul is united to a small and weak intelligence, then inasmuch as there are two desires natural to man, – one of food for the sake of the body, and one of wisdom for the sake of the diviner part of us – then, I say, the motions of the stronger, getting the better and increasing their own power, but making the soul dull, and stupid, and forgetful, engender ignorance, which is the greatest of diseases.
There is one protection against both kinds of disproportion : – that we should not move the body without the soul or the soul without the body, and thus they will be on their guard against each other, and be healthy and well balanced.
And therefore the mathematician or any one else whose thoughts are much absorbed in some intellectual pursuit, must allow his body also to have due exercise, and practise gymnastic ; and he who is careful to fashion the body, should in turn impart to the soul its proper motions, and should cultivate music and all philosophy, if he would deserve to be called truly fair and truly good.
And the separate parts should be treated in the same manner, in imitation of the pattern of the universe ; for as the body is heated and also cooled within by the elements which enter into it, and is again dried up and moistened by external things, and experiences these and the like affections from both kinds of motions, the result is that the body if given up to motion when in a state of quiescence is overmastered and perishes ; but if any one, in imitation of that which we call the foster-mother and nurse of the universe, will not allow the body ever to be inactive, but is always producing motions and agitations through its whole extent, which form the natural defence against other motions both internal and external, and by moderate exercise reduces to order according to their affinities the particles and affections which are wandering about the body, as we have already said when speaking of the universe, he will not allow enemy placed by the side of enemy to stir up wars and disorders in the body, but he will place friend by the side of friend, so as to create health.
The various parts, likewise, must be treated in the same manner, in imitation of the form of the Universe. For as the body [88d] is inflamed or chilled within by the particles that enter it, and again is dried or moistened by those without, and suffers the affections consequent on both these motions, whenever a man delivers his body, in a state of rest, to these motions, it is overpowered and utterly perishes; whereas if a man imitates that which we have called the nurturer and nurse of the Universe,3 and never, if possible, allows the body to be at rest but keeps it moving, and by continually producing internal vibrations defends it in nature's way against the inward and outward motions, and by means of moderate vibrations [88e] arranges the affections and particles which stray about in the body in their due reciprocal order,4 according to their affinities,—as described in the previous account which we have given of the Universe—then he will not suffer foe set beside foe to breed war in the body and disease, but he will cause friend to be set beside friend so as to produce sound health.]
torpor – מצב לא פעיל
Now of all motions that is the best which is produced in a thing by itself, for it is most akin to the motion of thought and of the universe ; but that motion which is caused by others is not so good, and worst of all is that which moves the body, when at rest, in parts only and by some external agency. Wherefore of all modes of purifying and reuniting the body the best is gymnastic ; the next best is a surging motion, as in sailing or any other mode of conveyance which is not fatiguing ; the third sort of motion may be of use in a case of extreme necessity, but in any other will be adopted by no man of sense : I mean the purgative treatment of physicians ; for diseases unless they are very dangerous should not be irritated by medicines, since every form of disease is in a manner akin to the living being, whose complex frame has an appointed term of life.
Further, as concerns the motions, the best motion of a body is that caused by itself in itself; for this is most nearly akin to the motion of intelligence and the motion of the Universe. Motion due to the agency of another is less good; and the least good motion is that which is imparted to a body lying in a state of rest and which moves it piecemeal and by means of others. Wherefore the motion that is best for purgings and renovations of the body consists in gymnastic exercises; and second-best is the motion provided by swaying vehicles,1 such as boats or any conveyances that produce no fatigue; while the third kind of motion, although useful for one who is absolutely driven to it, [89b] is by no means acceptable, under any other conditions, to a man of sense, it being the medical kind of purging by means of drugs. For no diseases which do not involve great danger ought to be irritated by drugging. For in its structure every disease resembles in some sort the nature of the living creature.]
For not the whole race only, but each individual – barring inevitable accidents – comes into the world having a fixed span, and the triangles in us are originally framed with power to last for a certain time, beyond which no man prolong his life. And this holds also of the constitution of diseases ; if any one regardless of the appointed time tries to subdue them by medicine, he only aggravates and multiplies them. Wherefore we ought always to manage them by regimen, as far as a man can spare the time, and not provoke a disagreeable enemy by medicines.
Enough of the composite animal, and of the body which is a part of him, and of the manner in which a man may train and be trained by himself so as to live most according to reason : and we must above and before all provide that the element which is to train him shall be the fairest and best adapted to that purpose. A minute discussion of this subject would be a serious task ; but if, as before, I am to give only an outline, the subject may not unfitly be summed up as follows.
I have often remarked that there are three kinds of soul located within us, having each of them motions, and I must now repeat in the fewest words possible, that one part, if remaining inactive and ceasing from its natural motion, must necessarily become very weak, but that which is trained and exercised, very strong. Wherefore we should take care that the movements of the different parts of the soul should be in due proportion.
And we should consider that God [הוא לא כותב האלים] gave the sovereign part of the human soul to be the divinity of each one, being that part which, as we say, dwells at the top of the body, inasmuch as we are a plant not of an earthly but of a heavenly growth, raises us from earth to our kindred who are in heaven.
And in this we say truly ; for the divine power suspended the head and root of us from that place where the generation of the soul first began, and thus made the whole body upright.
we declare that God has given to each of us, as his daemon, [i.e., “genius” or “guardian-angel”; Cf. Laws732 C, 877 A.] that kind of soul which is housed in the top of our body and which raises us—seeing that we are not an earthly but a heavenly plant up from earth towards our kindred in the heaven. And herein we speak most truly; for it is by suspending our head and root from that region whence the substance of our soul first came that the Divine Power [90b] keeps upright our whole body.]
"As concerning the most sovereign form of soul in us we must conceive that heaven has given it to each man as a guiding genius—that part which we say dwells in the summit of our body and lifts us from earth towards our celestial affinity, like a plant whose roots are not in earth, but in the heavens. And this is most true, for it is to the heavens, whence the soul first came to birth, that the divine part attaches the head or root of us and keeps the whole body upright."
When a man is always occupied with the cravings of desire and ambition, and is eagerly striving to satisfy them, all his thoughts must be mortal, and, as far as it is possible altogether to become such, he must be mortal every whit, because he has cherished his mortal part. But he who has been earnest in the love of knowledge and of true wisdom, and has exercised his intellect more than any other part of him, must have thoughts immortal and divine, if he attain truth, and in so far as human nature is capable of sharing in immortality, he must altogether be immortal ; and since he is ever cherishing the divine power, and has the divinity within him in perfect order, he will be perfectly happy.
But he who has seriously devoted himself to learning and to true thoughts, and has exercised these qualities above all his others, [90c] must necessarily and inevitably think thoughts that are immortal and divine, if so be that he lays hold on truth, and in so far as it is possible for human nature to partake of immortality,2 he must fall short thereof in no degree; and inasmuch as he is for ever tending his divine part and duly magnifying that daemon who dwells along with him, he must be supremely blessed. [Literally, “with a good daemon” (a play on δαίμωνand εὐδαίμων). יש כאן התחלה של העניין של התאחדות עם השכל הפועל]]
מתחיל בבחירה ואחר כך מגיע לכך שעושה את הטוב בהכרח
Now there is only one way of taking care of things, and this is to give to each the food and motion which are natural to it. And the motions which are naturally akin to the divine principle within us are the thoughts and revolutions of the universe. These each man should follow, and correct the courses of the head which were corrupted at our birth, and by learning the harmonies and revolutions of the universe, should assimilate the thinking being to the thought, renewing his original nature, and having assimilated them should attain to that perfect life which the gods have set before mankind, both for the present and the future.
לענין העמוק והחשוב של התנועה הטבעית לנפש השכלית, תנועה הדומה לעקרון האלוהי שבתוכנו שהיא המחשבות והסיבובים של העולם, בתרגום לאמב יש הערה שמפנה לעיל 37a. אני מעתיק את הקטע משם.
Inasmuch, then, as she is a compound, blended of the natures of the Same and the Other and Being, these three portions, and is proportionately divided and bound together, and revolves back upon herself, whenever she touches anything which has its substance dispersed or anything which has its substance undivided she is moved throughout her whole being and announces what the object is identical with [37b] and from what it is different, and in what relation, where and how and when, it comes about that each thing exists and is acted upon by others both in the sphere of the Becoming and in that of the ever-uniform. And her announcement, being identically true concerning both the Other and the Same, is borne through the self-moved without speech or sound; and whenever it is concerned with the sensible, and the circle of the Other moving in straight course proclaims it to the whole of its Soul, opinions and beliefs arise which are firm and true; and again, when it is concerned with the rational, [37c] and the circle of the Same, spinning truly, declares the facts, reason and knowledge of necessity result. But should anyone assert that the substance in which these two states arise is something other than Soul, his assertion will be anything rather than the truth.]
Thus our original design of discoursing about the universe down to the creation of man is nearly completed. A brief mention may be made of the generation of other animals, so far as the subject admits of brevity ; in this manner our argument will best attain a due proportion. [גם כן חוזר היסוד שביציאה אל הפועל יש הכרח מצד החומר שמאלץ את הרוח והוא נפתר על ידי הפרופורציה]
On the subject of animals, then, the following remarks may be offered. Of the men who came into the world, those who were cowards or led unrighteous lives may with reason be supposed to have changed into the nature of women in the second generation. And this was the reason why at that time the gods created in us the desire of sexual intercourse, contriving in man one animated substance, and in woman another, which they formed respectively in the following manner.
The outlet for drink by which liquids pass through the lung under the kidneys and into the bladder, which receives then by the pressure of the air emits them, was so fashioned by them as to penetrate also into the body of the marrow, which passes from the head along the neck and through the back, and which in the preceding discourse we have named the seed. And the seed having life, and becoming endowed with respiration, produces in that part in which it respires a lively desire of emission, and thus creates in us the love of procreation.
Wherefore also in men the organ of generation becoming rebellious and masterful, like an animal disobedient to reason, and maddened with the sting of lust, seeks to gain absolute sway ; and the same is the case with the so-called womb or matrix of women ; the animal within them is desirous of procreating children, and when remaining unfruitful long beyond its proper time, gets discontented and angry, and wandering in every direction through the body, closes up the passages of the breath, and, by obstructing respiration, drives them to extremity, causing all varieties of disease, until at length the desire and love of the man and the woman, bringing them together and as it were plucking the fruit from the tree, sow in the womb, as in a field, animals unseen by reason of their smallness and without form ; these again are separated and matured within ; they are then finally brought out into the light, and thus the generation of animals is completed.
"From the passage of egress for the drink, where it receives and joins in discharging the fluid which has come through the lungs beneath the kidneys into the bladder and has been compressed by the air, they bored a hole into the condensed marrow which comes from the head down by the neck and along the spine [91b] which marrow, in our previous account,2 we termed “seed.” And the marrow, inasmuch as it is animate and has been granted an outlet, has endowed the part where its outlet lies with a love for generating by implanting therein a lively desire for emission. Wherefore in men the nature of the genital organs is disobedient and self-willed, like a creature that is deaf to reason, and it attempts to dominate all because of its frenzied lusts. [91c] And in women again, owing to the same causes, whenever the matrix or womb, as it is called,—which is an indwelling creature desirous of child-bearing,—remains without fruit long beyond the due season, it is vexed and takes it ill; and by straying all ways through the body and blocking up the passages of the breath and preventing respiration it casts the body into the uttermost distress, and causes, moreover, all kinds of maladies; until the desire and love of the two sexes unite them. Then, culling as it were the fruit from trees, [91d] they sow upon the womb, as upon ploughed soil, animalcules that are invisible for smallness and unshapen; and these, again, they mold into shape and nourish to a great size within the body; after which they bring them forth into the light and thus complete the generation of the living creature."]
Thus were created women and the female sex in general. But the race of birds was created out of innocent light-minded men, who, although their minds were directed toward heaven, imagined, in their simplicity, that the clearest demonstration of the things above was to be obtained by sight ; these were remodelled and transformed into birds, and they grew feathers instead of hair.
The race of wild pedestrian animals, again, came from those who had no philosophy in any of their thoughts, and never considered at all about the nature of the heavens, because they had ceased to use the courses of the head, but followed the guidance of those parts of the soul which are in the breast. In consequence of these habits of theirs they had their front-legs and their heads resting upon the earth to which they were drawn by natural affinity ; and the crowns of their heads were elongated and of all sorts of shapes, into which the courses of the soul were crushed by reason of disuse. And this was the reason why they were created quadrupeds and polypods : God gave the more senseless of them the more support that they might be more attracted to the earth. And the most foolish of them, who trail their bodies entirely upon the ground and have no longer any need of feet, he made without feet to crawl upon the earth. The fourth class were the inhabitants of the water : these were made out of the most entirely senseless and ignorant of all, whom the transformers did not think any longer worthy of pure respiration, because they possessed a soul which was made impure by all sorts of transgression [חטא]; and instead of the subtle and pure medium of air, they gave them the deep and muddy sea to be their element of respiration ; and hence arose the race of fishes and oysters, and other aquatic animals, which have received the most remote habitations as a punishment of their outlandish ignorance. These are the laws by which animals pass into one another, now, as ever, changing as they lose or gain wisdom and folly.
We may now say that our discourse about the nature of the universe has an end. The world has received animals, mortal and immortal, and is fulfilled with them, and has become a visible animal containing the visible – the sensible God who is the image of the intellectual, the greatest, best, fairest, most perfect – the one only begotten heaven. [האל כאן אחד ויש אליו יחס של הערצה]
1 Cf. 30 C ff., 31 B./